Year: 2016, Issue: June

1

Biochemical composition of the marine cyanobacteria Phormidium tenue and Lyngbya species.

Sandip B. Savant and Tanaji G. Jagtap

Pages:

01-04

2016

June

Marine cyanobacteria, Protein, Fatty acid, Phormidium tenue, Lyngbya sp.
The two filamentous marine cyanobacteria Phormidium tenue (Phormidiaceae) and Lyngbya sp. (Oscillatoriaceae) were isolated from central west coast of India and were analyzed for their biochemical composition including nutritionally important protein, carbohydrate, lipid and fatty acids composition. Both cyanobacteria had moderately high protein, lipid and other biochemical components, which were comparable to other nutritionally rich microalgae. There were four major fatty acids: palmitic acid (PA, 36.6, 20.9%), carpric acid (CA, 15.5, 14.0%), oleic acid (OA, 5.7, 10.1%) and stearic acid (SA, 12.6, 10.7%). Saturated fatty acids predominated (SFA, 85.7, 76.6%), followed by monounsaturated fraction (MUFA, 8.0, 15.9%) and polyunsaturated acids (PUFA, 6.3, 7.4%). Thus, Phormidium tenue and Lyngbya sp. have essential constituents of nutritional and medicinal value for its use in dietary and pharmaceutical applications.

2

Analysis of effluent of a chlor-alkali industry and bioconcentration of mercury in some selected plants collected from the contaminated area at Ganjam, Odisha.

D. N. Padhy and A. K. Panigrahi

Pages:

05-10

2016

June

Physico-chemical parameters, Effluent, Residual mercury, Bioconcentration, Pollution.
The chlor-alkali industry at Ganjam producing tons of caustic soda, HCl and liquid chlorine since 1962 and releasing mercury along with cell house washings and other chemicals as effluent up to 2012, which is stored in an open stocking pond nearer to the river Rushikulya for over a period of last 12 years. Earlier the effluent was directly discharged into the river which contaminated the Rushikulya estuary and ultimately Bay of Bengal. The toxic effluent affects the flora and fauna of the area and also affects the cropping system of the surrounding area. Samples were collected from 9 stations and analyzed. Temperature, pH, salinity, total dissolved solids (TDS), conductivity and dissolve oxygen (DO) have been analyzed. TDS value ranged between 22.1-35.4 ppt (summer) and 29.2-41.0 ppt (rain). The value of DO around 10-11 mg/l, was beyond the permissible level. Salinity ranged between 25.5-40.8 ppt (summer) and 30.2-51.6 ppt (rain). Conductivity value was found to be between 33.5-53.3 ?s/cm (summer) and 35.4-60.2 ?s/cm (rain).The effluent and river water was alkaline throughout the year. These parameters were found to be more than standard values. 10 plants collected from surrounding of the stocking pond, belonging to 7 families, showed significant amount of residual mercury level in the plant body absorbed from the environment. Gradual decrease in residual mercury concentration was observed in most of the plants from 2011-2015. Leaching of the effluent from the stocking pond to the river also pollutes the water body and carried the toxic chemicals in to the estuary and route to Bay of Bengal.

3

Effectiveness of drought tolerance indices to identify tolerant genotypes in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.)

Satish Kachare, Sharad Tiwari and Niraj Tripathi

Pages:

11-13

2016

June

Soybean, Drought tolerance, Selection indices, Morpho-physiological.
A set of 45 soybean genotypes were evaluated at reproductive stage under water restricted and well watered conditions to identify drought tolerant genotypes. Five indices including plant height stress index (PHSI), root length stress index (RLSI), dry matter stress index (DMSI), relative water content stress index (RWCSI) and yield stress index (YSI) were applied for the selection of drought tolerant genotypes. Genotype JS 20-71, followed by JS 20- 95 and JS 20-117 were found to be highly drought tolerant. Whereas, genotypes JS 95-60, CG soya, JS 20-121 and JS 335 were identified as most sensitive to drought.

4

Comparison of effluent quality of chlor-alkali industry and bioconcentration of mercury in available fish at Rushikulya estuary.

Tapas K. Priyadarsan, B. V. S. Anuradha and A. K. Panigrahi

Pages:

15-22

2016

June

Bioconcentration, Residual mercury, Estuary, Estuarine fish, Effluent, Chlor-alkali industry.
The physico-chemical analysis of the effluent at three points of the effluent canal showed significant variation in different parameters. The leachate chemicals leaching from the storage tank into Rushikulya river showed very high values. This might be due to aerial drying and surface evaporation of water from the storage tank enriching the chemicals in the storage tanks. The effluent analysis at different time periods indicate a great variation in parameters. The 2013 reported data, indicated increase in mercury concentration in the effluent to 3.16+0.45 mg l-1 when compared to the report of 1996, however, the mercury concentration decreased to 0.96 0.18 mg l-1 in February, 2016. The decrease in mercury concentration was due to change in technology as no mercury was discharged. Whatever mercury was available was due to past deposition and present leaching from deposition, as huge amount of mercury was discharged in to the environment (mostly in to Rushikulya river and Rushikulya estuary) by the industry in the past 50-52 years. Residual accumulation of mercury leading to bioconcentration was marked in all the 11 fishes tested. The control fish did not show any residual mercury. However, all these fishes showed higher level of residual mercury. It was also noted that the collected dead fish showed higher residual mercury level in their body. It can be inferred that prolonged exposure to mercury leads to accumulation and bioconcentration of mercury in fish body. When the residual mercury increases significantly that might lead to fish mortality.

5

Plasmid mediated resistance mechanism of Enterobacter spp. towards sulfamethaxazole.

H. M. Nirbhavane and U. S. Bagde

Pages:

23-28

2016

June

Antimicrobial, Enterobacter, Resistance mechanism, Plasmid, Sulfamethaxazole.
It has become difficult to treat diseases effectively because microbial resistance to antimicrobials is spreading world over. The aim of this study was to understand the mechanism of resistance towards the antimicrobial Sulfamethaxazole by using resistant Enterobacter spp. and sensitive Enterobacter spp. There was complete inhibition of growth of sensitive Enterobacter spp. at 8 ?g/ml of Sulfamethaxazole, however, the resistant Enterobacter spp. tolerated even 24 ?g/ml of Sulfamethaxazole. Mechanism of resistance was found to be presence of plasmid. Plasmid isolation and analysis was done by agarose gel electrophoresis. Successful curing of plasmid was carried out with 10% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). When colonies after SDS treatment were tested, resistant strains were found converted to sensitive ones. Importantly there was absence of b lactamase enzyme.

6

Inhibition of multiple fungal phyto-pathogens by biocontrol bacteria.

D. G. Panpatte, H. N. Shelat, Y. K. Jhala and A. M. Dhole

Pages:

29-31

2016

June

Antagonistic, Native, Mycelial, Phyto-pathogenic.
Many microbial antagonists have been reported to possess antagonistic activities against fungal pathogens, such as Pseudomonas fluorescens, Agrobacterium radiobacter, Bacillus subtilis, B.cereus, B.amyloliquefaciens, Trichoderma viride, T.harzianum, Burkholderia cepacia, Saccharomyces sp. and Gliocadium virens. In present investigation antagonistic potential of native bacterial strains i.e. Providensia vermicola AAU PR1 (KJ161325), P.putida AAU PR2 (KJ161326) and P.fluorescens AAU PR3 (KJ161327) against various phyto-pathogenic fungi viz., Alternaria alternata (ITCC-5503) from chilli, A.alternata (ITCC-6134) from tomato, A.alternata (ITCC-7067) from potato, Aspergillus niger (ITCC-6202) from Citrus reticulate, A.niger (ITCC-6738) from sorghum seeds, M.phaseolina (ITCC- 6734) from tomato seeds, M.phaseolina (ITCC-6749) from soybean seeds, Pythium aphanidermatum (ITCC-5488) from ginger rhizome, Fusarium solani (ITCC-6846) from chilli roots. All the native strains were found to restrict mycelial growth of fungal pathogens. To the best of our knowledge and literature surveyed this is the first time report showing antagonistic activity of Pr. vermicola against phyto-pathogenic fungi causing severe loses in variety of crops.

7

Sequential chemical leaching behaviour of metals at selected stations in the Chilika lake.

Sunil K. Pattanaik, K. S. Bhatt and A. K. Panigrahi

Pages:

33-40

2016

June

Sequential chemical leaching, Metals, Chilika lake.
Sequential chemical leaching behaviour of metals was studied in select 10 stations out of 15 stations of Chilika lake selected for study. The sequence of leaching of heavy metals by 1M MgCl i.e. exchangeable phase, follow 2 the order Co>Pb>Zn>Cr>Cu>Ni>Mn>Fe with respect to their absolute concentration. The sequence of leaching of heavy metals by 1M MgCl i.e. exchangeable phase is Co (1.48-12.1%, average 6.96%) Pb (1.0-9.9%; average 3.96%) 2 >Zn (1.40-4.04, average 3.06%) Cr (0.7-3.87%; average 2.3%) >Cu (0.7-5.3%; average 2.1%) > Ni (0.2-2.2%; average 1.3%) > Mn (0.4-1.2%; average 0.6%) > Fe (0.02-0.17% average 0.09% of the total metal content). Other metals such as Cr, Cu, Co and Ni are also available in higher percentages at station 11 in the exchangeable phase perhaps originated from the pollution sources, which is nearer to Balugaon ghatt entering as adsorbed ions. It may be stated that the concentration of heavy metals and consequently their distribution in this fraction may be considered to be very low and geochemically insignificant organic matter have a scavenging effect and may provide a sink for heavy metals. The sequence of leaching of heavy metals by NaOAc (pH=5.0) i.e. carbonate phase in the lake sediments was Pb (6.4- 23.4%; average 14.3%) > Mn (8.3-21.9%; average 12.6%) > Cr (2.7-13.7%; average 9.87%) > Co(2.9-13.3%, Avg. 7.84%) > Ni (0.5-12.1%; average 6.4%) > Cu (3.2-10.9%; average 6.6%) > Zn (2.0-9.2%, averqage 6.7%) Fe > (0.4- 1.4%; average 0.7%), Pb (average 14.3%), Mn (average 12.6%), Cr (average 9.8 %) and Ni (average 6.4%) represent an appreciable portion of the total metal content, which are most likely the results from similarity in their ionic radii to that of Ca, which allows them to substitute Ca in Carbonate phase. The reducible phase seems to be little geochemical significance as the elements bound to this fraction. The metals in Fe-Mn oxide phase, which has been proved to be sensitive to anthropogenic inputs, retained 4.6-26.6% of Co, 11.4-22.6 of Ni, followed by Pb (10.4-34.2%), Cr (10.9-21.4), Mn (10.9-19.6), Cu (5.8-22.0), Zn (8.1-18.1) and Fe (5.7-9.9). The metals like Ni, Pb, Mn, Cr and Cu are almost equally contributed to this phase. The organic bound fraction in this present study are normally Pb>Zn>Cu>Ni>Cr (except Fe and Mn).

8

Distribution of sorghum charcoal rot caused by Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid.

R. Sukanya, S. K. Jayalakshmi, Gururaj Sunkad, D. S. Aswathanarayana and G. Girish

Pages:

41-43

2016

June

Sorghum, Charcoal rot, Incidence and Number of nodes crossed.
Roving survey was carried out to know the distribution of sorghum charcoal rot caused by Macrophomina phaseolina during rabi season of 2014-15 in five districts of Northern Karnataka. Percent incidence of charcoal rot and average number of nodes crossed was observed. Maximum incidence was observed in Bagalkot district (34.8%) followed by Vijayapura (33.98%), Kalaburgi (24.54%), Yadgir (22.73%) and the least (20.80%) was in Raichur. Regarding the number of nodes crossed by infection of charcoal rot showing maximum of grade 4 in Vijayapura and Bagalkot districts.

9

Phytochemical screening and radical scavenging activity of medicinally impotant plant : Mesua ferrea.

Romsha Singh and Sarika Jain

Pages:

45-47

2016

June

Phytoconstituent, Radical scavenging, Ethanolic extract, Mesua ferrea, In vitro assay.
Ethanolic extract of Mesua ferrea (Nagkesar) flower was prepared and it's in vitro phytochemical composition and radical scavenging activity was carried out of different parameters. Saponin, flavanoid, terpenoid and tannin are found as major phytoconstituents in flower ethanolic extract of Mesua ferrea flower. Study also reflected radical scavenging activity in in vitro assays. It showed a concentration dependent increase in radical scavenging activity. Outcome of the present study suggested assessing the Mesua ferrea at its in vivo level to develop it a good phytotherapeutic system

10

Management of root-knot nematode, M.incognita in ridge gourd by using bio-agents, botanicals and chemicals.

G. Shobha, V. Kantharaju, Abbas Hussain and R. Sukanya

Pages:

49-54

2016

June

Ridge gourd, Root-knot nematode, Management, Bioagent, Botanical, Chemical.
Ridge gourd, Luffa acutangula roxb. is popular vegetable grown almost all the year around and having medicinal value. The crop is severely affected by root-knot nematode (M.incognita). The study was to evaluate, the effect of bio-agents, botanicals and chemicals to suppress population of M.incognita under glasshouse conditions. An experiment was carried out to know the effect of various treatments, among those individual treatments, carbofuran 3G was found to be best compared to all other treatments and recorded the increased growth parameters viz., plant height (14.66 and 16.26 cm) and number of leaves (6.33 and 7.83). The root length (13.38 cm), fresh and dry root weight (0.60 and 0.22 g) and reduced nematode parameters, minimum number of galls per root system (21.00), nematode population (712.00) and gall index (3.03) at 30 and 60 DAS respectively followed by neem cake. Among the combination treatments, neem cake + carbofuran 3G proved best and recorded the increased growth parameters viz., plant height (15.80 cm and 17.42 cm) and number of leaves (6.66 and 8.00) at 30 and 60 DAS respectively. The root length (14.30 cm), fresh and dry root weight (0.55 and 0.20 g) and reduced nematode parameters minimum number of galls per root system (17.33), nematode population and gall index (696.33 and 3.0) at 60 DAS respectively.

11

On some economically important scarab beetles (Coleoptera : Scarabaeoidea) from Gomarda wildlife sanctuary, Chhattisgarh

Kailash Chandra, Joyjit Ghosh, Amitava Majumder, Sumana Halder and Devanshu Gupta

Pages:

55-58

2016

June

Taxonomy, Diversity, Distribution, Scarab beetles, India.
The paper reports the occurrence of 36 species of scarab beetles (Coleoptera : Scarabaeoidea) belonging to 20 genera, 8 subfamilies and 3 families, Scarabaeidae, Hybosoridae and Geotrupidae from Gomarda Wildlife Sanctuary, Chhattisgarh. Scarabaeidae is represented by 34 species while Geotrupidae and Hybosoridae include a single species each. Bolbohamatum phallosum Krikken,1980 (Bolboceratinae) and Adoretus versutus Harold,1869 (Rutelinae) have been recorded for the first time from the state. Based on their pattern of feeding, the scarab beetle fauna of Gomarda Wildlife Sanctuary can be classified into 2 major groups viz. dung beetles and chafers. It was found about 25 species feeding on dung and decaying matters while the other 9 species were collected from different leaves and flowers.

12

Impact of mining of faunal diversity of Guda Bishnoian area, Jodhpur district of Rajasthan (India).

H. S. Gehlot

Pages:

59-61

2016

June

Mining, Impact, Biodiversity, Guda Bishnoian, Jodhpur.
The Bio-diversity have been declining within the arid part of Rajasthan over the last few decades. The decrease in the population of wild fauna may be also due to destruction of natural habitats like illegal sand mining, stone quarries, increasing feral dog population and poaching. Guda Bishnoi area is major habitats for large number of terrestrial animals and birds in the Jodhpur district of Rajasthan. Here the Luni river bed has diversity and populations of wild fauna. These wild animals use this river banks for grazing, resting, moving and breeding. Simultaneously, these river beds are also used for sand mining purposes by people. The wide use of sand mining on the habitat of wild animals has a directly impact on their population and diversity. We studied the mining impact on bio-diversity of Guda Bishnoi area of Jodhpur district, Rajasthan during 2003-2006 and 2012-13 is discussed in this paper.

13

Haematological profile during late pregnancy and early postpartum period in Nari Suwarna Ewes.

Mallappa Talawar, T. Veena, A. Krishnaswamy, Y. B. Rajeshwari, G. C. Puttalakshmamma, N. B. Shridhar and G. P. Kalmath

Pages:

63-64

2016

June

NARI suwarna, Pregnancy, Postpartum, Fecundity and Haematology.
A study was carried out to assess the influence of pregnancy and postpartum period on various haematological parameters in NARI Suwarna ewes. A total of 30 NARI Suwarna ewes, aged two to three years, were selected for the present study and were divided into five groups, with six animals in each group, based on the presence or absence of pregnancy and also based on the presence of single and multiple foetuses. From each of the selected animal about 5 ml of blood sample was collected at a time. Collected blood samples were immediately utilized for determination of various haematological parameters using automatic analyzer (Mind Ray BC 2800 Vet). Among the different haematological parameters analyzed, only haemoglobin and total leukocyte count varied significantly (P<0.05) among the different groups. The pregnant group animals showed significantly (P<0.05) lower haemoglobin concentration compared to nonpregnant group. Postpartum group animals showed significantly (P<0.05) higher TLC compared to the pregnant group animals. From the present study it was concluded that the NARI Suwarna ewes adapt to the changed physiological status during pregnancy and postpartum period as evidenced by non-significant variation in most of the haematological parameters.

14

Analysis of in-vitro antioxidant activities of crude potato peel and ginger extract.

Rajkumar Ratankumar Singh, C. V. Raju, I. P. Lakshmisha, Faisal Rashid Sofi, Jag Pal and Aylwin Cherian

Pages:

65-70

2016

June

Antioxidants, potato peel, ginger, phenolic compound, lipid oxidation
Antioxidant activities of potato peel (PPE) and ginger extracts (GE) were measured in terms of total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), scavenging activity of DPPH (2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrozyl) and ABTS (2,2-azinobis 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), ferric reducing power (FRP) and metal chelating activity (MCA) on in vitro model system. The results revealed that PPE with higher TPC (24.31 mg GAE/g) and lower TFC (1.56 mg CE/g), had higher DPPH radical scavenging activity (81.97%) and FRP (0.595) than ABTS radical scavenging activity (455.97 ?M TE/ml) and metal chelating activity (56.46%), whereas GE, containing lower TPC (20.34 mg GAE/g) and higher TFC (2.80 mg CE/g), had higher ABTS radical scavenging activity (611.63 ?M TE/ml) and metal chelating activity (92.60%) than DPPH radical scavenging activity (72.34%) and FRP (0.372). Thus, potato peel and ginger extract could serve as a promising source of natural antioxidants in the food products.

15

Length-weight relationship and relative condition factor of Otolithes ruber (Bloch & Schneider, 1801) from Mangalore coast.

N. D. Ravi Kumar, D. P. Rajesh, H. N. Anjanayappa, S. Benakappa, S. R. Somashekara, B. T. Naveen Kumar and Harsha Nayak

Pages:

71-72

2016

June

Length-weight relationship, Relative condition factor (k ), Otolithes ruber, Mangalore coast.
The parameters of length-weight relationship of Otolithes ruber were estimated and corresponding equation was W=0.0294 L2.6970 for male and W=0.0316 L2.6884 for female. Analysis of covariance showed that there is no significant difference in length-weight relationship between the male and female. Hence the pooled equation for both sexes was obtained at W=0.0268L2.7017. The fluctuation in the relative condition factor (k ) values with respect to size in- n dicated that condition of fish showed that an increase trend in size of fish. The k values steadily increased up to about n 190-210 mm and thereafter showed fluctuation. The seasonal fluctuation in the relative condition factor of both the sexes was attributed to the sexual maturity cycle and food intake.

16

A study on prevalence of subclinical/clinical diabetes in dogs of Uttarpradesh, Uttarakhand and Kerala.

Gopinath Devi, Umesh Dimri, Ranbir Singh Jatav, Mohd. Iqbal Yatoo, P. M. Deepa, A. Gopalakrishnan and Y. Ajith

Pages:

73-75

2016

June

Random blood glucose, Glycatedhaemoglobin, Fructosamine, Subclinical, Clinical.
Presently the incidence of diabetes is increasing in both humans and dogs. In this context there are no reports about prevalence of canine subclinical/clinical diabetes in UttarPradesh, Uttarakhand and Kerala. Total of 586 dogs were screened for diabetic biomarkers random blood glucose, fasting blood glucose, benedicts test, glycated haemoglobin and serum fructosamine. Those dogs showed higher than their normal range were identified and diagnosed to be subclinical/clinical diabetes based on the range of values and presence of glycosuria. Highest prevalence of diabetes was found in UttarPradesh followed by Kerala and Uttarakhand respectively. Female dogs were showing higher prevalence than male dogs in the study. Labrador retriever showed highest breed prevalence followed by Germanshepherd, Spitz and Greatdane respectively. 5-10 year age group showed highest age based prevalence.

17

Incidence of rice yellow stem borer, Scripophaga incertulas (Walker) and its correlation with abiotic factors in agro-climatic conditions of Manipur.

Surbala Yumnam, Thounaojam Maipakpi Chanu, K. I. Singh and D. C. Ray

Pages:

77-80

2016

June

Seasonal incidence, Scirpophaga incertulas, Abiotic factors, Kharif rice, Manipur.
The incidence of Scirpophaga incertulas (Lepidoptera : Pyralidae) and its correlation with meteorological parameters were evaluated on the two rice varieties, RCM-9 and Jatra-phou in two study sites viz., Iroisemba and Wabagai during Kharif season, 2013-2014. The results revealed that the maximum adult (1.3�0.30 nos/quadrat) and larval (1.9�0.53 nos/hill) population incidences were recorded on the RCM-9 variety during the mid of September and 1st week of September,2014; respectively from Wabagai site, which was higher than Iroisemba site. Multiple correlations were indicated that all the abiotic factors proved non-significant correlation with the adult population on both the varieties in both the study sites. However, all the abiotic factors indicated significant correlation with the larval population on both the rice varieties in Wabagai site. Further, partial correlation (t-test) showed positive significant effect with average temperature (�C) and sunshine (hrs) to the adult population on Jatra-phou variety. Again, positive significant effect with average relative humidity (%) and sunshine to the larval population on RCM-9 in Iroisemba site and negative but significant effect with average temperature on both the rice varieties in Wabagai site.

18

Avifaunal diversity around Jait sagar lake, Bundi (Rajasthan).

P. C. Bhati

Pages:

81-83

2016

June

Avifaunal diversity, Jait Sagar lake, Bundi.
In present study a total of 122 species of birds have been identified and documented during a period of 18 months (2 February,2012 to 1 August,2013) around Jaitsagar lake, Bundi (Rajasthan). The recorded bird species belong to 14 orders and 43 families. Order Passeriformes, represented by 58 species, was found to be dominant in the study area whereas dominant families registered were Passeridae and Corvidae which were represented by 10 species each. Of the 122 species, 99 species were resident, 20 species were winter migratory, one species was breeding summer visitor, one species was monsoon breeding visitor and one species was vagrant with respect to the study area.

19

Efficacy of insecticide and plant product against the incidence of defoliators and stem borer in soybean.

S. S. Yadav, M. K. Nayak, D. S. Tomar and A. K. Srivastava

Pages:

85-88

2016

June

Soybean, Insect pests, Insecticide, Plant product.
An experiment was conducted during kharif-2012 on soybean crop to test the bio-efficacy of insecticides and plant products against defoliators and stem borer. The results revealed that Indoxacarb 14.5 SC (0.012%) proved to be the most effective. Lambda-cyhalothrin 5 EC (0.0025%) has more efficient against tobacco caterpillar followed by Indoxacarb 14.5 SC (0.012%) and NSKE (5%). While the effectiveness against semilloper of Indoxacarb 14.5 SC (0.012%) proved to be more followed by cypermethrin 10 EC (0.05%), whereas in case of girdle beetle Trizophos 40 EC (0.05%) proved to be most effective followed by cypermethrin 10 EC (0.01%). However, the plant product, tobacco leaf extract (2%) and Azadirachtin 0.15 EC (0.15%) proved to be least effective. The highest cost: benefit ratio was obtained in Lamda-cyhalothrin 5 EC (1: 23.67) which proved to be the most effective followed by cypermethrin 10 EC (1:18.52) and trizophos 40 EC (1:14.98), whereas lowest C:B ratio was recorded in NSKE (1:7.25). The seed yield 2763 kg/ha was recorded with application of Indoxacarb 14.5 SC which was 726 kg (35.64%) more than the control. Other treatments gave additional yield ranging from 2353 to 2753 kg/ha.

20

Embryonic development of two carp species with response to varied water temperature and breeding season under Tarai conditions of Uttarakhand.

Deepak Joshi, R. N. Ram, Mohd. Danish, Mahima Tamta and Pawan Kumar Joshi

Pages:

89-93

2016

June

Embryonic development, Hatching, Breeding season and Carps.
The present study was designed to assess effect of water temperature on the embryonic development of Rohu (Labeo rohita) and Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) during late breeding season under tarai conditions of Uttarakhand. The present study dealt with the morphological aspects of the embryonic stages along with the effect of temperature on the embryonic development. Fishes were induced and eggs were fertilized at natural atmospheric conditions and fertilization was carried out at ambient temperature (28�C) and was considered as '0 hour' of embryonic development. Fertilized eggs incubated at two different water temperatures (i.e. 20�C and 35�C) until hatching. Developmental stages were monitored by sampling embryos in different temperatures at particular intervals. The present finding clearly demonstrated that the incubation temperature significantly influences hatching duration, hatching rate and survival of eggs of both L.rohita and C.idella. The present study also revealed that the embryonic development of eggs during high temperature, i.e. ambient temperature was faster than low temperature. It also revealed that during late breeding season, the development rate of eggs of L.rohita is more when compared to the development rate of eggs of C.idella.

21

Ichthyofaunal diversity of three rivers of Raigarh district, Chhattisgarh.

Gourishanker Patel, M. S. Chari, Sanjeev Kumar, Dibakar Bhakta, Samarendra Behera, Narendra Kumar Verma, R. R. Chavan and Tausif Ahmad

Pages:

95-99

2016

June

Fish diversity, Kelo, Mahanadi & Mand river, Raigarh district, Chhattisgarh.
Freshwater fishes from selected sites of three rivers Mahanadi, Mand and Kelo were collected for fish bio-diversity study from November,2011 to May,2012 of Raigarh district, Chhattisgarh. A total 61 species under 41 genera, 22 families and 7 orders were recorded. Five new entrants were recorded from the earlier studies as Eutropiichthys murius, Gagata gagata, Johnius gangeticus, Ompak pabda and Tor putitora. The fish species diversity was found maximum at Mahanadi with 54 species followed by 37 in Kelo and 30 in Mand river. On the basis of frequency distribution Mastacembelus armatus, Parambassis ranga, Sperata aor, Sperata seenghala and Xenentodon cancila were dominant species in Mahanadi river; Catla catla, Clarias batrachus, Cirrhinus mrigala were dominant in Mand river and Labeo rohita, Pangasius pangasius were in Kelo river respectively. The order Cypriniformes dominated the groups with 43.00% of the species richness followed by Siluriformes (29.50%), Perciformes (18.00%), Synbranchiformes (3.00%), Clupeformes (3.00%), Beloniformes (2.00%) and Osteoglossiformes (2.00%). Out of 61 species recorded, 16 species were found ornamental in nature, two species were endangered and seven were vulnerable category. Physico-chemical parameters for all three rivers were found suitable for fisheries.

22

Report on an innovative fishing gear used in natural water bodies in Assam.

Rinku Gogoi, Bibha Chetia Borah, Samarendra Behera, Sanjeev Kumar and Amlan Jyoti Das

Pages:

101-104

2016

June

The Brahmaputra, Gheko, Bambusa balcooa, Passive gear, Beel, Indigenous.
The present communication deals with a specific type of fishing gear being used for fishing in connecting channel of an open beel with river Brahmaputra in Jorhat district of Assam. The present study has been conducted in Neematighat area of Jorhat district of Assam in altitude 26�50'16''N and 94�11'33''E during May-December,2015. The trap locally known as ""Gheko"" is a triangular structure, wider at mouth and tapering to the end constructed by using different type of bamboo found locally. Different varieties of bamboo are used for construction. E.g. Bhaluka bamboo (Bambusa balcooa) for vertical poles and support (86 numbers), Jati bamboo (Bambusa tudda) for oblique posts (40 number) and Mokal bamboo (89 numbers) (Bambusa nutans) for inclined supporting posts. The bamboo structure of the trap is around 30 m long with a mouth of 3m wide that tapers in to a 1.5 m wide cone. The trap is fitted to the mouth of the connecting channel. The channel with 4-5 m width and an average 1-1.5 m depth at the site of operation. Fishing efficiency of the device sused to be varies on different seasons ranging between 30-100 kg fish/day.

23

Ecological observations on soil inhabiting microarthropods in forest and agroecosystem of Cachar district, Assam.

D. C. Ray and Rajeeb Chetia Pator

Pages:

105-110

2016

June

Microarthropods, Diversity index, Evenness index, Oribatid, Collembola.
Soil microarthropods play a vital role in nutrient cycling process, thereby maintains the soil health. This specific study was carried out to investigate the ecology of soil inhabiting microarthropods in forest and agroecosystem (vegetable field) of Cachar district, Assam. Soil samples were collected (January,2014 to April,2014) at ten days interval from both the study sites. The study revealed that a total of 10 groups of microarthropods were abundant in both the ecosystems. Out of those, Collembola and Oribatid mites were the dominant group in both the investigated areas. The peak population of total microarthropods group in agricultural field was recorded in the 3rd sampling in January,2014 (39.5�31.36 No/m2 X 1002) whereas in forest during 5th sampling in February,2014 (4.64�0.26 No/m2 X 1002). Shannon-Wiener Diversity index (H) on agricultural field was found to be higher during 9th sampling in March,2014 (1.65) and on forest ecosystem during 8th sampling in March,2014 (2.55). The Pielou's index of evenness (J') was found to be higher in the 11th sampling in April,2014 (0.86) on agricultural field whereas in forest during 8th sampling, the same was higher in March,2014 (0.90). Linear regression analysis showed that only soil temperature in agricultural field (r=0.66, p<0.05) and soil pH in forest ecosystem had significant influence (r=0.66, p<0.05) on the microarthropod population.

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