Year: 2017, Issue: December

37

Distribution on mercury contained leached chemicals of solid waste of a chlor-alkali industry on BGA and possible reclamation.

Alaka Sahu

Pages:

133-139

2017

December

Solid waste extract, Mercury, Blue-green alga, Decontamination.

The solid waste extract prepared from the solid waste of a chlor-alkali was taken and toxicity study was conducted with blue-green algae, Westiellopsis prolifica, Janet., Anabaena cylindrica, Lemm, Nostoc sp. and Oscillatoria sp. Experiments were conducted in concentrations selected from toxicity testing. Mercury content analysis indicated that the Waste Extract (WE) contained 3.24, 11.52, 25.34 ?g of mercury in the culture medium with 0.45% of WE; 1.6% of WE; 3.8% of WE respectively before the initiation of the experiment. It was observed that Westiellopsis could accumulate 1.26, 2.62, 3.94 ?g of mercury, Anabaena could accumulate 1.19, 2.46, 3.86 ?g of mercury, Nostoc could accumulate 0.85, 1.14, 2.28 ?g of mercury and Oscillatoria could accumulate 1.41, 2.71, 3.85 ?g of mercury from the WE inoculated culture medium with in 15th days of exposure. Maximum accumulation of mercury was noted in case Oscillatoria and minimum of residual mercury accumulation was observed in case Nostoc. In case of Westiellopsis 1.95, 8.57, 20.9 ?g of mercury was removed from the medium by way of accumulation and volatilization from the medium and in case of Anabaena 2.0, 8.7, 21.03 ?g of mercury was removed from the medium by way of accumulation and volatilization from the medium. In case of Oscillatoria 0.03, 0.08, 0.38 ?g of mercury was removed from the medium by way of accumulation and volatilization from the medium and in case of Nostoc 0.06, 0.38, 0.13 ?g of mercury was removed from the medium by way of accumulation and volatilization from the medium. The most important aspect was the non availability of mercury in the air of culture vessels in Oscillatoria and Nostoc exposure. However, significant amount of mercury was recorded in the air available inside the culture vessels of Westiellopsis and Anabaena exposed culture vessels. Interestingly, significant amount of mercury was detected in air collected and pumped from the experimental culture vessel. Both Westiellopsis and Anabaena could remove significant amount of mercury from the medium, whereas Nostoc and Oscillatoria could not remove significant amount of mercury except by way of residual mercury accumulation. The only interesting finding was that all the four algae could resist and tolerate mercury to a significant amount within a period of 15th days of exposure. No residual or floating mercury was recorded in control cultures for all the four algae tested through out the experimental periods.

38

Phytosociological study on a Sand dune in Bikaner district.

Vinod Kumari, R. K. Gehlot and V. K. Mali

Pages:

141-146

2017

December

Thar, Sand dune, Ephemeral, Therophytes.

The present study deals with floristic composition, life forms and soil analysis of the constituent species of sand dune ecosystem of Rajasthan desert region. During favorable season vegetation consists of many ephemerals, annuals and perennials and maximum number of species was recorded during rainy season. The sand dune flora is predominantly therophytic. Maximum numbers of the species are present on base and leeward side of the sand dune. Least number of species is present on the top. Soil sample were taken from different depth of top, slope and base of sand dune during summer, winter and rainy season and analyzed for pH, Electrical Conductivity, Organic Carbon, Available Phosphorus, Available Potassium, Zinc, Iron, Copper and Manganese. Significant variations were observed in texture as well as physico-chemical characteristic of soil at different level. Plants of top, slope and base also showed variations in species composition and characteristic habit.

39

An ethnobotany of traditional medicinal plants of Banda district (U.P.).

Arpana Mishra and Shrinarayan Tripathi

Pages:

147-150

2017

December

Banda, Medicinal, Plant.

The present study was focused at the identification of ethenomedicinal plant, determination of families and medicinal properties. 93 plant species belonging to 48 families were recorded used by traditional medicine which are useful in different ailments. These plants species are used as folk medicines by Vaidhya or Hakim, rural and common people in Banda district (U.P.).

40

Influence of pH and temperature on colour stability of flower.

S. P. Adhikary

Pages:

151-158

2017

December

Flavonoids, Pigments, pH, Anthocyanids, Co-pigments.

The flower constitutes flavonoid pigments. Flavonoids belong to the polyphenol group, which includes so many colouring pigments i.e. the anthocyanidin, flavones, flavanones, flavonols, etc. Anthocyanin is among the permitted pigments that can be used for food colourants and having been considered a potential replacement for synthetic dye. Some other flavonoids also enhance the colour of the anthocyanin as co-pigment. The objective of this study is to analyze the effect of pH and temperature on flower pigments and their associated phytochemicals of fully opened flower (S-4) petals of R.indica, H.rosasinensis, C.ternatea and M.jalapa. The experimental results noticed that the residual colour stability of floral pigment altered at different pH and temperature with incubation period. The stability of floral colour pigments gradually decreased with increase of incubation period of petal extract of test flowers. Fifty percent stability of floral pigment was recorded on 20th, 18th, 16th and 14th days after storage of extracts in C.ternatea, R.indica, H.rosasinensis and M.jalapa respectively. Among the test flowers the stability of residual colour was found to be the highest in C.ternatea followed by R.indica, H.rosasinensis and M.jalapa. The degradation of colour stability exhibited negative correlation with increase in storage day. The procurement of color pigments from petal of the flower at appropriate pH and temperature is highly essential for further processing and manipulation through screening and evaluation. Pigment manipulation and utilization in the field of food industry for sustainable health aspects, natural dye industries and pharmaceutical products provides a beam of light for alternatives technology for better green environment

41

Environmental mercury discharged from a chlor-alkali industry, its impact on biodiversity at the contaminated site at Ganjam, Odisha.

Jhilli Prabha Prusti and A. K. Panigrahi

Pages:

159-164

2017

December

Chlor-alkali industry, Contamination, Residual mercury, Absorption, Plant pigments, Plant biodiversity

The chlor-alkali industry M/s. Jayashree Chemicals Pvt. Ltd., is situated at Ganjam, was under study, to assess the impact of mercury discharged from a chlor-alkali industry on environment and biodiversity at the contaminated site at Ganjam, Odisha. The analysis of the effluent collected from two contaminated sites showed significantly high level in all parameters tested and the most important being the mercury level. It was expected that no mercury will be found after the change in technology by the industry but unfortunately mercury presence was detected. It was opined that the available mercury was due to mobilization of mercury from sediments to the effluent as sediments were found contain the previously discharged mercury. The solid waste also showed very high level of mercury. The plants collected during 2011 showed significantly high level of residual mercury. However, the mercury level dropped significantly in2016. High level of residual mercury in few perennial plants not consumed by grazers is not a concern but the very availability of mercury in plant warrants attention. The residual mercury affected the pigment content of the plant leaves collected from the contaminated environments and the values were significant when compared to respective control values. The plant pigments significantly depleted with the increase in mercury concentration and it was also opined that mercury is responsible for such a drastic depletion in pigment content. The comparison of2016 values with 2011 values indicated that the mercury contamination was at its peak in 2011 and the contamination decreased in2016, which is a positive sign. The total removal of solid waste from the area and transported to a distant place for use in construction of roads is a good sign for Ganjam area but a bad sign for those places where these solid wastes will be dumped. These wastes contain high level of mercury and will contaminate the air, water bodies by leaching and land mass by leaching and rain run off water.

42

Fresh water Chlorococcales diversity of Gajner lake Bikaner (Rajasthan) India.

Rohitash, M. C. Mali and Seema Vyas

Pages:

165-168

2017

December

Chlorococcales, Gajner lake, Chlorophyceae.

The present studies deals with the floristic composition of order Chlorococcales of family Chlorophyceae. The present study carried out for the period of 6 month from January,2017 to June,2017. The total 13 taxa of Chlorococcales belonging to 6 genera reported during study period. These are belonging from Scenedesmaceae, Hydrodictyaceae, Selenastraceae, Dictysphaeriaceae and Coelastraceae.

43

Abiotic stress response and tolerance in soybean : An overview of plant breeding approaches.

Pooja Murlidharan, A. K. Singh and S. R. Ramgiry

Pages:

169-172

2017

December

Abiotic stress, Soybean, Plant breeding.

During the last 50 years, it has been shown that abiotic stresses particularly waterlogging and drought has influenced plant growth and crop production greatly, particularly soybean and crop yields have evidently stagnated or decreased in economically important crops, where only high inputs assure high yields. The recent manifesting effects of climate change are considered to have aggravated the negative effects of abiotic stresses on plant productivity. On the other hand, the complexity of plant mechanisms controlling important traits and the limited availability of germplasm for tolerance to certain stresses have restricted genetic advances in major crops for increased yields or for improved other traits. New genomic technologies promise to make progress for breeding tolerance to these two stresses through a more fundamental understanding of underlying processes and identification of the genes responsible. Cultural methods including partial tillage and adjustment of the water table also effectively mitigate damage caused by abiotic stress. Integration of these approaches should lead to stable crop production. Aim of this review paper is exhibit the plant responses to the waterlogging and drought stresses.

44

Profitability of wheat in different size of farms in Central India.

A. N. Gautam, Nidhi Sirothiya and R. M. Sahu

Pages:

173-175

2017

December

Profitability of wheat in different size of farms.

The present study was attempt to examine the cost and return of wheat crops different size of farm and profitability analysis in Betul district of Madhya Pradesh. The study was conducted in 2014-2015. Returns from the crop cultivation are not only important for the survival of farmers, but also facilitate reinvestment in agriculture. If the flow of income for crop cultivation is not regular and adequate, farmers may not be able to repay their debts which would lead to increased indebtedness. After the green revolution the yield per hectare of wheat in India increased from 14.1 quintal per hectare to 25.80 quintal per hectare on the farm of major wheat growing states as well as progressive farms of Madhya Pradesh in wheat production. the study was attempt to examine the cost and return of wheat crops different size of farm and profitability analysis. It is also showed that cost of production at cost C2 level was worked out as Rs. 671.55/qtl. Rs. 794.04/qtl and Rs. 813.48/qtl. for small medium and large farmers respectively and at average level it was found Rs. 797.72/qtl. Similarly cost of production at C3 level, it was worked out as Rs. 761.72/qtl for small farm Rs. 895.03/qtl. for medium farmers and Rs. 913.91/qtl. for large farmers and at overall average level, it was found Rs. 896.86/qtl, It was found that cost of production was found minimum in small farmers. small farmers used resources more efficiently as compared to medium and large framers who invested having for a less pro portioned return. On an average level of input output ratio was found 1:1.60 and 1:1.46 at cost C2 and Cost C3 level respectively.

45

Mass rearing and establishment of Zygograma bicolorata Pallister (Coleoptera : Chrysomelidae) : A Mexican beetle.

Vijaylakshmi Jain, Jaya Tiwari, Yashwant K. Ratre, Pankaj K. Mishra, Veeru Prakash and Pradeep K. Patra

Pages:

177-180

2017

December

Zygograma bicolorata, Parthenium hysterophorus, Pupa, Instar

This study is intended to provide the mass rearing and laboratory method for the establishment of Zygograma bicolorata of family Chrysomelidae, also referred as Mexican beetle. These were introduced for biological control on noxious weed called Parthenium hysterophorus so are also referred as 'Parthenium beetle'. The life cycle of the beetle is of approximately 4-6 weeks which is divided into four different stages : Egg, Larvae, Pupa and Adult. The larval stage comprises of four instars. The adult feeds on fresh and young leaves of parthenium and tends to hide on adaxial side of the leaves. An effort has been made for mass culturing the beetles in laboratory conditions.

46

Incidence of parasites in Labeo rohita (Hamilton) at Balrampur (U.P.).

Sadguru Prakash and Ashok Kumar Verma

Pages:

181-183

2017

December

Abundance, Intensity, Labeo rohita, Parasite, Prevalence.

To investigate the parasitic infection on Labeo rohita, one hundred live fishes of different size were collected from different water bodies of Balrampur during July,2016-June,2017. Out of 90, 76 fishes were found infected with fungus, protozoans and metazoan parasites. Among them seven were ectoparasites (Saprolegnia Trichodina, Myxobolus, Chilodonella, Dactylogyrus, Gyrodactylus and Argulus) and three were endoparasites (Trypanosoma, Eucreadium and Camallanus). The infestation showed monthly or seasonal fluctuation, the maximum abundance of parasites was recorded in the month of December and the minimum in July. It was observed that the infection was the maximum in winter and the minimum in the rainy season. Prevalence, intensity and abundance of the infestation were also found to be related to different length group of the hosts, the medium sized fishes were more infested and the larger size fishes were less infested while the smaller size fishes showed medium infestation.

47

Study of ichthyofaunal diversity of Tapti river of Burhanpur district (M.P.).

Anisuddin Siddiqui and Shaida Pervin

Pages:

185-188

2017

December

Fish biodiversity, Burhanpur district, Tapti river.

Tapti river is one of the major rivers of India, with the total length of around 724 kilometres starting from Betul (M.P.) to Surat (Gujrat). In the present study the ichthyofaunal diversity of river Tapti in Burhanpur district was undertaken from December,2014 to August,2015.The present study showed 26 fish species belonging to 7 families, 6 orders were recorded in the 4 respective stations viz. Burhanpur (Station-1), Bhatkheda (Station-2), Dariyapur kalan (Station-3), Jainabad (Station-4). The total 26 fish species recorded at Station-1 (Burhanpur), 25 fish species recorded at Station-2 (Bhatkheda), 24 fish species recorded at Station-3 (Dariyapur kalan) 26 fish species recorded at Station-4 (Jainabad). The member of order Cypriniformes were dominated by 13 fish species followed by Siluriformes 6 species, Ophiocephaliformes 3 species, Mastacembeliformes 2 species, Clupeiforme 1 species, Beloniformes 1 species.

48

Study of water quality index (WQI) of five different sampling stations of river Narmada, Jabalpur region.

Deepika Saini and K. K. Dube

Pages:

189-191

2017

December

Water quality index, Physico-chemical parameter, pH, Turbidity, BOD.

Narmada river is a life line of Madhya Pradesh. River water is used for various purpose such as agriculture, domestic and irrigation etc. The fresh water is important for healthy living. This natural resource is slowly and slowly getting polluted by discriminate disposal of sewage, industrial water and human acts. So, it is necessary to monitor the water quality of the holy river Narmada by analysis of various physico-chemical parameters. The objective of present work is to study water quality index of river Narmada (Jabalpur region).

49

Breakfast behaviour of adolescents of Karnataka and its contribution to nutrient intake.

Netravati M. Yattinamani, Pushpa Bharati and Bharati V. Chimmad

Pages:

193-197

2017

December

Breakfast, Adolescents, Gender, Accompaniments, Dietary recall.

Breakfast is an integral part of a balanced dietary pattern. Having breakfast is recognized as a healthy practice. The purpose of the study was to assess the breakfast behaviour of adolescents of Karnataka and its contribution to nutrient intake. A total of 1000 adolescents of 13-16 years (both gender) were selected from rural and urban areas of Dharwad taluk of Karnataka. Data on breakfast behaviour was collected through personal interview method. A sub sample of 30% (300 adolescents) of boys and girls (13-16 yrs) were selected from rural and urban Dharwad taluk. Dietary intake of breakfast consumers and skippers was recorded by 24 hr dietary recall method. Statistical analysis was done using 't' test. Majority of rural (94.20%) and urban (88.60%) adolescents consumed breakfast. Breakfast consuming girls could meet 59.39 (13-15 yrs) and 61.28% (16-17 yrs) of one third RDA of energy.

50

Use of naturally occurring indigenous herbal products as potential alternative to synthetic insecticides : An overview.

Arti Singh and B. S. Chandel

Pages:

199-204

2017

December

Indiscriminate use of synthetic insecticides to control insect pests has resulted in undesirable side effects along with environmental pollution. Interest has arisen to work out the role of plant products in controlling feeding, reproduction, growth and metamorphosis in insects as alternative to synthetic pesticides. Aware of this effect, mankind has used plant parts or extracts to control insects since ancient times. This review present the work done so far regarding the role of various a plants extract in controlling different aspect of insect behavior. Plants may provide potential alternatives to currently used insect-control agents because they constitute a rich source of bioactive chemicals. Since these are often active against a limited number of species including specific target insects, are often biodegradable to non-toxic products, and are potentially suitable for use in integrated pest management, they could lead to the development of new classes of safer insect-control agents. Much effort has, therefore, been focused on plantderived materials for potentially useful products as insecticide.

51

Study of biochemical components of cestode parasite from Gallus domesticus in Aurangabad city of Maharashtra.

Sapna Lohat, Sunita Borde and Arun Gaware

Pages:

205-207

2017

December

Biochemical component, Cestode parasites, Cotugnia, Gallus.

In The present investigation biochemical components of cestode parasite Cotugnia spp. from host Domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) has been studied. Analysis of major biochemical constituents of genus Cotugnia revealed that the total glycogen, protein and lipid contents (in milligrams) 0.15 mg, 0.11 mg and 0.04 mg respectively. Glycogen content was relatively high showing Carbohydrate as a main energy source in this parasite followed by protein and lipids (Carbohydrate> Proteins> Lipids). This holds true for a parasite living in an anaerobic environment like the gut.

52

Study of process of spermatogenesis in Emoleptalea dollfusi, Srivastava,1960 (A digenetic trematode).

Rajani Gautam

Pages:

209-212

2017

December

Digenetic trematode, Emoleptalea dollfusi, Spermatogenesis, Alcoholic Bouin,s Fluid, Gower's Carmine.

Present paper deals with the study of spermatogenesis of a new digenetic trematode Emoleptalea dollfusi, Srivastava,1960. The helminthes parasites were collected from the intestine of Saccobranchus fossilis of the family Cephalogonimidae Nicoll,1915 at the locality Goghar, Rewa (M.P.). A few of the parasites were flattened on a clean slide under the slight pressure of a cover glass and fixed in alcoholic Bouin,s fluid for 12 hours. Stains like Gower's Carmine, Mayer's Paracarmine and Haemalum were used for the preparation of whole mounts for identification and the study of testes and process of spermatogenesis in this species.

53

Hydraulic characteristics of micro-tube dripper.

Ayushi Trivedi and Avinash Kumar Gautam

Pages:

213-216

2017

December

Drip irrigation, Discharge, Drippers, Laterals, Pressure.

Drip irrigation is an extremely efficient method of delivering water to a plant. The concept is quite simple delivers the water slowly, drip by drip, at a precise rate directly to the root zone. This keeps the root zone evenly moist and encourages deeper root growth. Drip irrigation is a method of applying slow, steady, and precise amounts of water and nutrients to specific areas of trees, vines, ground covers, potted plants. Emitters made of short lengths (20 cm) of microtube provide excellent uniformity in water distribution at low pressures (as good as any on-line emitters). The water filtration required for microtube emitters is much simpler than what is required for typical on-line emitters and when a microtube emitters become clogged it can usually be cleaned or inexpensively replaced, which is impossible to do with on-line emitters. An experiment was conducted and the discharge at various operating pressure was measured that is from 0.25 kg/cm2-1.25 kg/cm2. The obtained experimental results indicated that maximum discharge has been observed at first two drippers and minimum at last drippers. As the distance of drippers from the lateral head increases, discharge of dripper decreases.

54

Helminth parasites of sheep and goats from Marathwada region.

Nitin Padwal, Atul Humbe and Swati Jadhav

Pages:

217-218

2017

December

Sheep, Goats, Gastro-intestinal tract, Helminth parasites.

In most sheep and goat raising areas, internal helminth parasites are usually the primary disease affecting sheep and goats with their lambs and cubes, these animals are very susceptible to internal helminth parasites rather than other types of farm livestock. Their small fecal pellets disperse easily thus releasing the different worms larvae on the respective patterns of sheep and goats, where these grazing very close to the soil substance and to their faces. As we know they are slow to acquire to immunity. Mean while it takes to 9-11 months to most lambs and cubs to develop their immunity to parasites. Sheep and goats even suffer a loss of immunity during lambing and cubing which does not compensate itself until 25-30th days after their lambing and cubing, so as to percept the causes of infection and their diseases of various helminth form have been noticed specially in Capra hircus (L.) and Ovis bharal (L.) from Aurangabad region however some of these even infect to human beings the common prevalence of cestode parasites such as Moniezia benedini, Moniezia capari, Stilesia globipunctata, Stilesia govindae, Avitellina nagabhushamii, Avitellina goughi, Aliezia aurangabadensis, Aliezia indica, Trematodes Fasciola hepatica, Cotylophoron cotylophorum, Paramphistomum bothriophoron, Nematode Oesophagostomum columbianum, Oesophagostomum asperum, Bunostomum trigonocephalum.

55

Anaesthetic effect of Benzocaine on oxygen consumption of a major carp, Cirrhinus mrigala (Ham).

S. K. Shitanshu and R. R. Singh

Pages:

219-220

2017

December

Benzocaine, Anaesthetic, Oxygen consumption, Cirrhinuc mrigala.

Effect of anaesthetization on oxygen consumption with Benzocaine at a dose of 40.0 mg/l on the juveniles of Cirrhinus mrigala was observed using a cylindrical glass respirometer. The oxygen consumption of controlled fish increased from 2.124�0.13-5.949�0.53 mlO2/h with an increase in body weigh form 14.25�1.42-56.50� 4.93 g showed a reduction (p<0.001) of about 43% in 3h and 39% in 24h anaesthetization of Benzocaine respectively. The information is useful in calculation of oxygen requirement of this fish for their live transportation and other experimental purposes.

56

Effect of industrial waste water on biometric parameters of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) crop under drip irrigation.

V. H. Patil, A. K. Bajpai and Abhijit Joshi

Pages:

221-226

2017

December

Effect of industrial waste water, Biometric parameters of tomato.

Treated industrial waste water from food processing plant was applied to tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) crop through drip irrigation under different treatments. Effect of different treatments on the biometric parameter of tomato rivaled that irrigation sources have caused variation in plant height. Higher plant height was recorded under Bore Well Fresh Water (BWFW) at 15, 30, 60 and 90 DAP as compared to Treated Fruit Waste Water (TFWW). Interaction between irrigation sources and emitter did not affect plant height. Higher number of branches have been recorded under BWFW at 30, 60 and 90 DAP as compared to TFWW and under S1 type of emitter. The number of flower cluster per plant at different stages of crop growth was influenced by different irrigation treatments and different emitter type. Numerically higher number of fruit clusters per plant was recorded under BWFW as compared to TFWW. Interaction between irrigation sources and emitter did not affect the number of fruit cluster per plant as it was non significant at all the time periods. The weight per fruit of tomato was not affected by irrigation source and type of emitter. The study concluded that treated waste water could be used safely for tomato crop under drip irrigation.

57

Application of treated industrial waste water under drip irrigation on tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) crops.

V. H. Patil, A. K. Bajpai and Abhijit Joshi

Pages:

227-231

2017

December

Use of industrial waste water, Biometric parameters of tomato.

The present investigation was undertaken at Jain Valley and Jain Plastic Park, Jain Irrigation System Limited, at Jalgaon (M.S.), on application of treated waste water in agriculture through drip irrigation by evaluating treated and untreated waste water analysis, suitability of emitter flow path for treated waste water and field evaluation of irrigation system using treated waste water from food processing plant. Tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) crop was grown during 2013-2014 and two different types of emitters were selected to know its performance under different water treatments. Study on emitter flow path for industrial waste water from food processing plant showed non pressure compensating emitters B2.0 (L 18 mm, W 0.8 mm, D 0.84 mm) and pressure compensating emitters performance of C2.0 (L 45.4 mm), W 0.92 mm, D 1.04 mm) as the best combination after clogging test. Irrigation system evaluation for industrial waste water from food processing plant showed distribution uniformity of C2.0 emitter was better than B2.0.

58

Study of female reproductive organs and oogenesis in Allocreadium ophiocephali, Srivastava,1960 (A digenetic trematode).

Rajani Gautam

Pages:

233-235

2017

December

Digenetic trematode, Allocreadium ophiocephali, Oogenesis.

Present paper deals with the study of female reproductive organs and oogenesis in a new digenetic trematode "Allocreadium ophiocephali", Srivastava,1960. The helminth parasites were collected from the intestine of a fresh water fish Ophiocephalus punctatus of the family Allocreadiidae at the locality Dhirma nala, Rewa (M.P.). A few of the parasites were flattened on a clean slide under the slight pressure of a cover glass and fixed in alcoholic Bouin,s fluid for 12 hours. Stains like Gower's Carmine, Mayer's Paracarmine and Haemalum were used for the preparation of whole mounts for identification and the study of reproductive organs.

59

To study the knowledge of rural women regarding breast feeding practices in Amreli dist. of Gujarat.

Neha Tiwari and Aastha Khatri

Pages:

237-240

2017

December

Knowledge of rural women, Breast feeding.

The present study was conducted in purposively selected Taluka of Amreli district of Gujarat State namely Amreli. The purpose of the present study was to knew the knowledge of rural women regarding breast feeding practices in Amreli district. The total sample of 50 rural respondents were selected for the present study. Finding of the study reveal that women had good knowledge regarding different aspects of breast feeding practices.

60

Population density of rhesus focal troops from two habitats of Satna district of M.P.

Chetna Sharma and Shivesh Pratap Singh

Pages:

241-244

2017

December

Population density, Rhesus monkey, Focal troops.

The rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) is one of the best known species of old world monkeys. It is listed as least concern in the IUCN Red data book of Threatened species; in view of its wide distribution and presumed large of habitats. In the biological sense, population can be considered as an assemblage of plants or animals, which may belong to a single species or to several closely related species occupying a definite area. The study site Babupur Kaniyari village area and Kardmeshwer dham hill area were largest in forest habitat. They show a well marked home range of macaque with certain degree of defense mechanism. The census of 2014-2015 covering 4 troops and yielded 127 rhesus monkey; in 2014 this population increased to 137 with a net gain of 10 individuals in a troop. These four troops were belonged to two different ecosystems i.e. Troops BK1-BK2 belonged to village ecosystem and KD1-KD2 to protected hill ecosystem.

61

Evaluation of phagodeterrent action of Nyctanthes arbor-ristis seed extract against Callosobruchus chinensis.

P. C. Bhati

Pages:

245-246

2017

December

Phagodeterrent, Nyctanthes arbor-tristis, Callosobruchus chinensis.

Anti-environment impacts of the widespread use of synthetic pesticides initiated exploration of safer ways to pest management. Plant products are now being studied for their role in curbing pest menace. In present study, acetone extract of seeds of Nyctanthes arbor-tristis has been evaluated for phagodeterrent properties against pulse beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis. The extract showed 48.7865, 72.888, 80.020 and 85.078 percent seed protection over control for 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% dose levels, respectively.

62

Optimization of parameters affecting production of ethanol from waste potatoes.

Enkuahone Abeba and R. Srinu Venkat Rao

Pages:

247-252

2017

December

Ethanol, Waste potatoes, Fermentation, Yeast, Hydrolysis, Anaerobic.

Waste disposal has become one of the major concerns for nation. Waste potatoes are the major solid by product now a day's especially in marketing area and farming area. The dried waste potatoes have a content of cellulose and hemicelluloses, which make it suitable as fermentation substrate when hydrolyzed for ethanol production. The research was done on the production of ethanol from waste potato for ethanol production and parameter test based on varying yeast amount, acid concentration, growth media, pH, temperature, fermentation time and other parameters. Generally it was concluded that, Ethanol production from waste potato was increases with the increase in temperature and reaches maximum value at 35�C. Further the increasing temperature reduces the percentage of ethanol production and it is mainly due to the denature of the yeast cells and ethanol concentration gradually increases along with the increase in pH and reaches a maximum percentage of ethanol production when pH is equal to 5.55 and later it starts declining due to the lesser activity of yeast. When concentration of yeast increases, the yield of ethanol increase up to 19% (w/w) and then it starts to decrease and ethanol has cloudy color and alcohol content was increased with the increase in fermentation time and reaches maximum value for 70 hours and it starts decreases. Therefore; the optimized conditions of waste potato flour were of temperature 35�C, pH 5.55 and the time 70 hours which gave maximum ethanol yield of 50% (w/w).

63

Impact of altered pH media on mortality rate, oxygen consumption and excretion in prawn Litopenaeus vannamei.

T. Ramanamma, T. Suneetha and V. Sailaja

Pages:

253-256

2017

December

Litopenaeus vannamei, pH media, Mortality, Oxygen consumption

L.vannamei of body weight 6.5�0.5 gms were selected to study the mortality rate, mean survival time, O 2 consumption, unit metabolism and excretory pattern on exposure to different ranges of both acidic and alkaline pH media. At pH 3.5and pH 10.5 highest mortality (100%) and least mean survival time were observed. At pH 4.5 and 9.5 50% mortality was observed 71 hrs of mean survival time was observed at 4.5 pH where as at pH 9.5 mean survival time was 84 hrs which was highest O consumption, unit metabolism, ammonia, ammonia/oxygen were estimated. In 2 both acidic and alkaline exposed prawns O consumption and unit metabolism were reduced over control. The 2 reduction was less in alkaline exposed prawns. But the ammonia content was increased in alkaline exposed prawns where as reduced in acidic exposure. The similar trend was observed in the case of ammonia/oxygen ratio.

64

Food preference of gold fish (Carassius auratus) with special reference towards mosquito larvae under laboratory condition.

Sunita Gupta, Mahima Tripathi and R. P. Mishra

Pages:

257-260

2017

December

Food preference, Gold fish, Mosquito larvae.

The present research work carried out the rearing aspect of gold fish using mosquito larvae. The study conducted to investigate feeding efficiency of gold fish, which feed on mosquito larvae and observe its growth performance. In the present study, feeding experiment conducted for six month and final growth parameters measured after 60th days of initial stocking. The final weight, weight gain and specific growth rate observed. Result indicates gold fish in its different life stage predates on mosquito larvae. Hence, this fish can be used to control mosquito larvae.

65

Fish diversity of Garga reservoir of Bokaro (Jharkhand).

Farhat Saba and D. N. Sadhu

Pages:

261-264

2017

December

Garga reservoir, Fish diversity, Physico-chemical.

The fish diversity of the Garga reservoir was studied. Garga reservoir of Bokaro has been constructed on river Garga. The water of the reservoir is used for irrigation, fishery and drinking purposes. Fish collections were done with gillnets of standardized dimensions with several mesh sizes. 25 fishes were identified during the study belonging to Cyprinidae 11 species, Channidae and Notopteridae of 2 species, Bagridae with 4 species and a species each of Mastacembelidae, Cichlidae, Anabantidae, Siluridae, Saccobranchidae and Claridae. The species diversity is peak in post monsoon, coinciding with favourable conditions such as sufficient water and ample food resources whereas the diversity was low in pre-monsoon probably due to the shrinkage of the water spread of the reservoir.

66

Residual effect of weed organic manure on growth and productivity of spinach.

R. L. Parbhankar and U. P. Mogle

Pages:

265-267

2017

December

Compost, Organic manures, Residual effect, Yield.

A pot experiment was carried out to study residual effect of organic manures on growth and yield of spinach. Organic manures were prepared from weeds like Parthenium, Cassia and Ipomoea. These manures and chemical fertilizers were supplied to the pot. The growth analysis, was recorded after 40th days. Samples of each treatment along with control were kept in oven for estimation of dry matter, nitrogen, crude protein. Percent increase over control and nitrogen efficiency ratio was also calculated. All organic manures showed good residual effect on growth and yield of spinach organic manures prepared from weed increased the productivity of crop and show long term effects.

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