Year: 2018, Issue: December

Evaluation of acute toxicity and behavioural responses in Mystus tengara (HAM.) exposed to Merit alpha.
Nisha Kumar
Livestock, Climate change, Food security.
It is emphasized that climate change and food security are two emerging issues being faced by people all over the world, particularly those in the developing countries. Many of the developing countries tend to be especially vulnerable to extreme climatic events as they largely depend on climate sensitive sectors like agriculture, animal husbandry and forestry. Food security embraces food production, stability of supply and access to food. Livestock play a role in all these three aspects: they make a significant contribution to food production through the provision of high value protein-rich animal products; they indirectly support crop production through drought power and manure; and finally, they are the most significant source of income and store of wealth for smallholders, thereby providing access to food. In India, livestock provides employment to almost 18 million people of whom 75% are poor. It is said that the poorest of the poor who do not have livestock, if acquire animals, can help start a pathway out of poverty. However, one important negative environmental contribution by livestock is 'methane emission'. India has 485 million livestock, which is 13% of global livestock population. It contributes to about 17% of India's GHG emission in CO equivalent. The GHG emission is mainly from ruminants in the form of methane formed due to enteric 2 fermentation of fibrous feed rich in cellulose. Overgrazing, particularly in dry lands is another negative contribution by livestock in India. This leads to degradation of the marginal lands and thereby cause increase in environmental temperatures. On the other hand, the impact of climate change on livestock is a matter of serious concern as majority of livestock in India are in the hands of the resource poor. Recent studies indicate that the impact of rise in temperature on Indian livestock greatly affects its functions and milk production of indigenous and cross bred cattle & buffaloes. A small rise in temperature negatively impacts growth, reproduction and production thereby affecting food security to millions of rural poor.

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