Year: 2016, Issue: December

Analysis and detection of Avian inflluenza (H5N1).
Author:
Vijay Laxmi Saxena and Arushi Chaudhary
Keyword:
Avian influenza, RT PCR, LPMs, H5N1.
Avian influenza is a highly contagious viral infection. Shorebirds (Charadiiformes) and wild waterfowl (Anseriformes) are the major natural reservoir of Avian Influenza Viruses (AIVs). These birds can carry all hemagglutinin (HA) and 9 neuraminidase (NA). AIVs are zoonotic pathogens, the respiratory tract of poultry and gastrointestinal tract of waterfowl are replication sites for AIVs and poultry are incubators for the progression of lowpathogenicity avian infuenza (LPAI) virus into HPAI virus. Infected birds can shed AIVs in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces. Susceptible birds become infected when they have contact with surface that is contaminated with virus. People directly or indirectly exposed to live poultry markets (LPMs), that increase the risk of human avian influenza virus infection and LPM closures effectively control poultry-to-human transmission. For diagnosis, samples are initially tested using RT PCR (for detection of AI virus), with rapid testing of positives for H5, and if possible N1, and that analysis of the HA cleavage site is undertaken to determine the pathogenicity of the AI virus. The WHO GISRS and partner laboratories have developed both haemagglutination-inhibition and micro neutralization laboratory protocols to detect specific H7N9 virus antibodies in human sera.

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