Year: 2019, Issue: June

1

Improving GLYCINE MAX L. water stress tolerance targeting superoxide dismutase

Meenakshi Mishra, Vijaylakshmi Jain, Pankaj K. Mishra and Veeru Prakash

Pages:

01-06

2019

June

Waterlogging stress, HPLC, Reactive oxygen species, Salicylic acid, Superoxide dismutase.

Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is an important anti-oxidative enzyme by means of various therapeutic applications. Present investigation dealt with characterization of copper-zinc SOD (CuZn-SOD) from Glycine max L. grown in waterlogging stress in the midst of salicylic acid (SA). Ammonium sulfate fractionation and HPLC results set the presence of CuZn-SOD in the extract under applied stress which enhanced SOD activity 3-5 folds with the total yield 63-65% after partial purification. The purified protein was characterized as CuZn-SOD, reflected by H O and 2 2 NaN induced inhibition. The optimum pH range for purified CuZn-SOD activity was reported 7.5 and this was stable 3 over a wide range of temperatures 20-50ºC. This is a homodimeric protein with subunit molecular weight of 33.2 kDa. The peak area and height in HPLC were recorded from 448525-13987576 and 83628-955538 respectively from T -T . 1 0 Outcome also showed the shielding effects of SA against hypoxic conditions.

2

Potential use of some traditional plants extracts as bio-protectant against Tundu disease of wheat

Surendra Kumar Bhardwaj, Meena Deswal and Jitendra Singh Laura

Pages:

7-11

2019

June

Rathyibacter tritici, Antibacterial activity, Plants-extracts, Phytochemicals.

Thirty seven plants samples of thirty plants were bio-assessed by agar diffusion methods against Rathyibacter tritici, a causal organism of tundu disease of wheat. The fruit extracts of Terminalia chebula has shown marvellous inhibitory activity against Rathyibacter tritici, a causal organism of tundu disease of wheat. The various parts of Terminalia belerica (bark, fruit, leaf and stem) have shown more or less equal inhibitory effect against the test bacterium. The combined extracts of bark of Terminalia belerica and fruit extracts of Terminalia chebula in general showed a strong enhancement in activities over the individual extracts of bark extracts of Terminalia belerica and fruit extracts of Terminalia chebula against the bacterium growth respectively. Some of the other plants such as Acacia arabicae, Caesalpinia bonducella, Rosa damascena and Terminalia arjuna also showed the inhibitory effect against the test bacteria.

3

Fluctuations of planktons and physico-chemical factors in relation to fish growth in a small irrigation reservoir

Praveen Ojha

Pages:

13-18

2019

June

Physico-chemical parameters, Zooplanktons, Phytoplanktons, Indian major, Carps, Fish growth.

Physico-chemical and bio-chemical aspects of the reservoir water has been investigated to assess the quality of water for fish growth and survival. The variations of the physico-chemical properties of water samples directly influence the biotic communities and primary productivity of the water body of Barnoo reservoir. The aim of the present study was to determine the physical, chemical and biological characteristics and to characterize the fish growth in Barnoo reservoir. Temperature, Water transparency, pH, Dissolved oxygen, Free CO , Alkalinity, TDS, 2 Hardness, Calcium, Conductivity, Gross primary productivity are the parameters were measured and indicates that the reservoir is medium productive. A total number of 30-genera of zooplanktons viz. Rotifera, Cladocera, Copepoda and 61 genera of phytoplanktons viz. Basillariophyceae (Diatoms), Chlorophyceae, Cyanophyceae and Dinophyceae were observed and recorded. Growth performance of stocked fishes i.e. Catla, Rohu and Mrigala fishes was observed and found to be encouraging and satisfactory. In our opinion it was due to proper selection of fish species, size and number of fingerlings stocked and water quality of the reservoir favors stocked fish for better survival.

4

Monitoring and evaluation indicators for reducing physical, social and environmental vulnerability with respect to community perception on climate change - Case study of Almora, Uttarakhand

Ashish Kumar Panda, Anil K. Gupta and Amarjeet Kaur

Pages:

19-24

2019

June

Vulnerability, Indicators, Evaluation, Community, Climate change.

Indian Sub-continent is highly vulnerable to Climate Change and Climate Induced disasters. Indian economy critically depends on climate sensitive sectors such as agriculture, tourism, forests, animal husbandry, fisheries etc. Northern Himalayan State of Uttarakhand, is facing problems of soil erosion, landslides, prolonged dry spells, glacier recession, erratic precipitation, extreme climate events etc. very frequently. Local community bears the brunt of any climatic disaster and therefore to understand the perception of the local community of Uttarakhand with respect to the issues of Climate Change and associated vulnerabilities (physical, social and environmental), a questionnaire was developed. Hill station of Almora was chosen as the study area due to its climatic sensitivity. Face to face basis focused group discussions were held with villagers of 12 villages of Almora. Simultaneously, telephonic interview was held with 55 Gram Pradhans of all the 11 Blocks of Almora to arrive a prime vulnerability indicators. Further, monitoring and evaluation parameters, based on real time issues in the vulnerability areas have been suggested in this study. The finding of this study indicates 11 different vulnerability indicators, which were arrived after focused group discussion and telephonic interviews with the village community of Almora. Their day to day problems, concerned areas and possible measures to reduce the vulnerability were discussed and based on that, possible 74 different parameters of monitoring and evaluation have came out as takeaway from this research exercise. If these parameters could be integrated into the District Disaster Management Plan (DDMP) and local Panchayat Level developmental activities, a climate resilient sustainable development can be assured.

5

Location and mapping of Chippaleru estuary, Lakshmipuram village, Thummalapenta

Ashok Kumar B. and V. Sailaja

Pages:

25-28

2019

June

Mangroove, Topography, India, Biodiversity, Conservation, Chippaleru.

The mangrove ecosystem has been identified as very unique but fragile, dynamic and most productive as any other ecosystem. Increasing human pressure on the limited mangrove resources due to increase in population. Increasing awareness regarding environmental and economic use of mangroves has highlighted the need for mangrove conservation and management. In India, mangroves occur on the West Coast, on the East Coast and on Andaman and Nicobar Islands, but in many places they are highly degraded. According to the Government of India (1987), India lost 40% of its mangrove area in the last century. The National Remote Sensing Agency (NRSA) recorded a decline of 7000 ha of mangroves in India within the six-year period from 1975-1981. Increasing human population in coastal areas is resulting in increased pressure on mangrove ecosystems in many countries, with the growing demand for timber, fuel wood, fodder and other non-wood forest products.

6

Seasonal variation in water quality of river Ghaghra Bihar, India

Atul Kumar Sinha and Shailendra Kumar Sinha

Pages:

29-35

2019

June

River water quality, River Ghaghra, Seasonal variation, Free CO2, BOD, COD.

The study explains water quality of river Ghaghra, Bihar. Seasonal changes in the water quality of the river observed during Monsoon, several water quality parameters showed considerable changes due to increased run- off water from the catchment and other seasonal factors. A few parameters responsible for temporal variation in water quality of the river Ghaghra was rendered by the parameters like water temperature, pH, turbidity, electrical conductivity, sulphate, phosphate, free CO2, total iron, total alkalinity, total hardness, nitrogen-nitrite, nitrogen-nitrate, carbonate, bi-carbonate, total dissolved solids, total suspended solids, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chloride, Dissolved oxygen (DO), Biological oxygen demand (BOD) and Chemical oxygen demand (COD). The seasonal changes in water quality of the river were due to seasonal effects and catchment characteristics

7

Prevalence of visceral leishmaniasis, risk factors and associated disorders in Fulbaria, Mymensingh district

Anindita Rani Bhowmick and Hamida Khanum

Pages:

37-42

2019

June

Prevalence, Visceral leishmaniasis, Risks, Disorders.

A total of 215 cases were recorded from the rural areas of Fulbaria upazila. The prevalence of kala-azar was higher in male (51.22%) than female (36.96%). In the area, 10.1-20 years age group was the most prevalent group and the prevalence was found to decrease with the increase of age. Post Kala-azar Dermal Leishmaniasis (PKDL) was developed in 38.14% of KA patients of Fulbaria upazila. In case of living in mud house, the prevalence of KA was found 63.89% and when living in tin shed house but with earthen floor, the prevalence was 58.79%. On the other hand, 10.31% had associated with single infection, 21.65% double infection and 68.04% had multiple infection. Living in proximity to prior case, climatic change, racked mud house, humid area, cattle sheds made of cracked mud walls, poor economical condition, malnutrition, illiteracy, incomplete treatment, lack of awareness and knowledge regarding kala azar were the risk factors. Total 45 professionals were interviewed in the Upazila Health Complex and Upazila SubCeAnters of the study area through a preset questionnaire. Of them, 71.11% had the appropriate acquaintance about the agent (Leishmania donovani) of kala-azar and 35.29% professionals had the correct comprehension regarding the reservoir of kala-azar (man). Most of them (91.11%) recommended rK 39 dipstick test as the single most important diagnostic blood test and Miltefosine and Amphotericin B are the most recommended drugs for treatment of kala-azar. About 54.12% professionals reported death as a consequence of not treating kala-azar.

8

Effect of reproductive cycle on the interrenal activity of a fresh water teleost fish Channa punctatus

Poonam Kumari

Pages:

43-46

2019

June

Channa punctatus, Sinusoids, Vascularity, Oviparous

This fish is oviparous and breeds once a year during the rainy season (through June-August). Histomorphology of the gonads as well as changes in the interrenal tissue have been studied in this fish during different months of the year. The interrenal tissue in Channa punctatus is situated in the anterior end of the kidney surrounding the posterior cardinal vein and its tributaries, consists of irregular strands of cells. The interrenal tissue could be divide into two phases active and inactive are well differentiated. Active phase is characterized by increased vascularity, homogenous cytoplasm, bigger nuclei and large number of cell layers around sinusoids. In the inactive phase the number of cell layers is less nuclei decrease in size, cytoplasm becomes granulated, vascularity becomes less pronounced and no follicles are seen in the interrenal tissue. The active phase persists through the main reproductive period (June-September in female and May-September in male). It clearly suggests the involvement of interrenal in controlling reproduction. There is a definite role of corticosteroids in reproduction of this teleost.

9

Analysis of phytochemicals and antimicrobial activities of ethanolic leaf extract of Thevetia peruviana (Pers.) K. Schum [Thevetia white]

Krati Ghavri and Madhavi Adhav

Pages:

47-50

2019

June

Antimicrobial activity, Cardiac glycosides, Phytochemical analysis, Thevetia peruviana (Pers.) K. Schum

Thevetia peruviana (Pers.) K. Schum is one of the important medicinal as well as ornamental plant belongs to the Dogbane family Apocynaceae. It is commonly known as yellow oleander. The plant is popular in traditional medicine especially for treatment of heart problems. The leaves are emetic and purgative. Leaf decoction is given to prevent conception. The ethanolic leaf extract of Thevetia White was tested for antimicrobial activity against human pathogenic bacteria. Thevetia White leaf extract showed strong antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhi. The phytochemical analysis reveals the presence of alkaloids, flavanoids, cardiac glycosides, phenolic compounds, phytosterols and tannins, which are mainly contributed to antimicrobial activity and medicinal utility of the plant.

10

A comparative study of primary productivity of phytoplankton at two different sites of Hardia wetland of Saran district of North Bihar, India

Chitralekha Sinha

Pages:

51-55

2019

June

Primary productivity, Phytoplankton, Hardia wetland, Saran district, North Bihar.

Present investigation is on Hardia wetland of Saran district on the phytoplankton. The wetland is qualitatively and quantitatively rich in phytoplankton composition. Altogether 51 species of phytoplankton were recorded and are represented by four groups namely Bacillariophyceae, Chlorophyceae, Myxophyceae and Euglenophyceae. As far as diversity is concerned Bacillariophyceae were represented by 19 species, followed by Chlorophyceae 18 species, Myxophyceae 11 species and Euglenophyceae 3 species. The dominance of diatoms were observed among phytoplankton followed by blue green algae, green algae and euglenophytes. High chloride and silicate level and aquatic physico-chemical factors may be responsible for the dominance of diatoms. The phytoplankton were dominant in summer, mainly due to favourable thermal condition and high nutrients level.

11

Short term effect of altered pH on the oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion in the prawn Litopenaeus Vannamei

T. Ramanamma, T. Suneetha and V. Sailaja

Pages:

57-61

2019

June

Altered pH, Acidic, Alkaline, Oxygen consumption, Ammonia, Unit metabolism

Altered pH of the medium exerts equal stress condition on the aquatic animals like temperature, salinity, oxygen and other physical conditions. The prawn Litopenaeus vannamei were obtained from Otturu prawn hatcheries of Kavali Mandal, Nellore district and then maintained under laboratory conditions in normal brackish water at room temperature (27.5±0.5°C), salinity (25 ppm, pH 7.4±0.1) and exposed to natural photoperiod. The prawns were fed with standard commercial diet. The prawns were made into 3 groups. First group control (pH 7.4), Second group of prawns exposed to acidic water at pH 6.5, and third group of prawns exposed to alkaline water at pH 9.0 for short term exposure of 24 hours. The oxygen consumption of the prawn was depleted in both acidic and alkaline media under short term exposure. The percent depletion of oxygen consumption was more in acidic media than in alkaline media. The per unit oxygen metabolism was decreased in acidic medium and in alkaline medium when compared to control. The ammonia excretion was reduced in acidic medium after 24 hours of exposure. But in alkaline medium the ammonia excretion was elevated when compared with control. The excretion of ammonia is more in alkaline medium than in acidic medium. The ammonia/oxygen ratio was recorded lower in acidic medium, but it was higher in alkaline medium over their respective controls.

12

Seasonal variations of Zoobenthos of Taj Baj Khan Pokhra Hajipur, Vaishali, Bihar (India)

Mukesh Lal, Manisha Verma and Sonam

Pages:

63-66

2019

June

Seasonal variation, Zoobenthos, Unimodal curve, Taj Baj Khan Pokhra.

The zoobenthos in Taj Baj Khan Pokhra did not show much qualitative variations. However, monthly quantitative variations were distinct. In general its number increased in summer months and decreased in winter months. Insecta constituted the largest group (46.46%), followed by Oligochaetes (32.45%), Gastropods (6.60%), Branchiopods (4.54%), Bivalves (3.95%), Ostracods (3.63%) and Leeches (1.93%). Altogether 31 species of zoobenthos were collected. As for qualitative abundance was concerned,15 sps. of Arthropoda, followed by 9 species of Annelida and 7 species of Mollusca.

13

Acute toxicity study of cadmium chloride on the freshwater bivalve, Lamellidens marginalis

Shaikh Yasmeen

Pages:

67-70

2019

June

Toxicity, Kutluq lake, Cadmium chloride, Lamellidens marginalis, LC50 values

The active substance cadmium chloride is highly toxic and showed damage to a multitude of non target species. The bivalves have been used for many years to determine the pollution status of water. In the present study static bioassays were performed on bivalve, Lamellidens marginalis to evaluate the median lethal concentrations of cadmium chloride (CdCl2) for 96 hrs. The LC50 values for 96 hrs were 3.5, 9.0 and 2.0 ppm, in summer, monsoon and winter respectively. The results showed that the LC50 values decreased with increase in exposure period.

14

Gonadal development in the snail Lymnaea acuminata

K. P. Nagare and S. S. Jawale

Pages:

71-74

2019

June

Lymnaea acuminata, Gonadal development, Protandric hermaphroditism

This study documented gonadal development and gametogenic process for the Lymnaea acuminata snail from Aurangabad (M.S.), which is located in North 19°53'47"- East 75°23'54" on the World map. Random collection of different sized group of the snail was made as follows : A) 3±1 mm shell length, B) 8±1 mm shell length, C) 11±1 mm shell length, D) 14±1 mm shell length and E) 20±1 mm shell length. The gonads in the form of hepatopancreas - gonadal complex were studied histologically. Microscopic observations were revealing that during growth phase of these snails start first with male phase and followed by maturation of female phase. This type of gonadal maturation and process of gametogenesis in the snail Lymnaea acuminata is referred as protandric hermaphroditism. These finding are important and throws light in the field of reproductive physiology of the freshwater snail L.acuminata.

15

Biological control of mosquito population by Bradinopgya geminata

Devendra Mishra, V. K. Sharma and Asha Pal

Pages:

75-77

2019

June

Dragonflies, Bradinopgya Geminata, A.culicifacies, Mosquito Control, Holkar

Insects of order Odonata regarded as "very beneficial insects" as the large sized larvae of dragonflies and damselflies prey upon the smaller sized larvae in aquatic habitats. At the immature stage of mosquitoes, they are easy to capture as prey as they are less mobile and remain concentrated at a place. Damselfly and dragonflies are important predators of many micro invertebrates including mosquito larvae in their larval stages. Here, in this study, I am focusing mainly on the 12th instar of B.geminata and its predation on mosquito larvae as prey preference. According to the recorded data, it is clear that B.geminata larvae were found to consume mosquito larvae in significant number. One instar of B.geminata could consume up to 15 mosquito larvae in one hour from the beginning of the experiment and up to 50 larvae in 48 hours. The main reason of this study is to help to stop the transmission of mosquito borne diseases through bio controlling agents. From the results, it is evident that 12th instar of B.geminata can consume enough larvae of A.culicifacies and it also needs to be experimented in their natural field conditions.

16

A study on the impact of infestation of Cuscuta campestris (dodder) on the yield of fruits of Ziziphus mauritiana (Jujube) in outskirts of Ayodhya

Madhurima Tiwari and A. D. Mishra

Pages:

79-84

2019

June

Economic yield, Ziziphus mauritiana, Cuscuta campestris, Infestation, Fruit sellers and pharmaceuticals

The analysis is based on economic yield of fruits of Ziziphus mauritiana infested by Cuscuta campestris in the season of flower and fruit formation during January-March. The study was done for the two consecutive years 2018 & 2019 in the outskirts of Ayodhya district (especially the Eastern part) of Uttar Pradesh. In this study, a survey was conducted by visual observation of the affected areas as well as by taking the feedback regarding reasons, timing and consequences of this infestation from the affected fruit sellers, owners of fruit trees and other local people. The available data shows that how Cuscuta campestris influences the economics of fruit sellers as well as production of pharmaceutical industries based on them. The study indicates the great potential of this holoparasite which spreads vigorously and infests healthy fresh plants.

17

Study of the effect of pesticides on the habitat selection of the aquatic insect

Rajendra Mistry and Amita Mishra

Pages:

85-86

2019

June

Carbaryl, Insecticide, Anthropogenic

Fresh water ponds are vital for the survival of all creatures. It is necessary to ensure the quality of water for a long time. The species richness of pond is strongly influenced by the anthropogenic activities of human. The pollution of the pond directly effects the organisms living in it. little is known about how contaminants determine the habitat selection by the aquatic insects. In this study this is an attempt to show that how insecticide carbaryl and its commercial counter parts sevin can affect the habitat selection. Contaminated pond receives 30 fold more adult beetle and heteropterans and 18 fold more Culex mosquito and chironomid midge larvae.

18

Assessment of the toxicity of blended plant extracts against the pulse beetle, 

Callosobruchus chinensis L.

P. C. Bhati

Pages:

87-88

2019

June

Toxicity, Delonix regia, Embilica officinalis, Callosobruchus chinensis

Efficacy of blended acetone extracts of Delonix regia and Embilica officinalis was studied against damage caused by Callosobruchus chinensis. The study revealed percent seed protection over control enumerated for 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% dose levels to be 46.645, 51.177, 55.867 and 72.021, respectively. Fecundity, egg viability and adult emergence were also adversely affected after treatment of cowpea seeds with the blended plant extract in the ratio of 1:1. The toxicity of the extracts, however, was found to be dose dependent.

19

Comparative nutritive contents in the species of Cleome in thar desert

Vinod Kumari and R. K. Gehlot

Pages:

89-90

2019

June

Desert, Arid, Nutritive value, Secondary metabolites

Genus Cleome in Thar Desert is represented by four species viz. C.gracilis, C.gynandra, C.vahliana and C.viscosa. All the species are ephemeral. The present study deals with estimation of nutritive contents and secondary metabolites in different plant parts. In the present study, Crude protein content was found to be highest in leaves of C.gynandra (21.45%). The leaves of C.gynandra contained maximum (4.18%) amount of crude fat while maximum amount of total carbohydrate reported from the leaves of C.viscosa (74.80%). Alkaloids were reported to be present in leaves and stem of C.vahliana. Low concentration of saponin and tannin were observed in stem of C.viscosa.

20

Studies on a new species of Tripospermum (T. Dhamonica Sp. Nov.) In North Sagar Forest Division, M.P. India

Shrinarayan Tripathi and Arpana Mishra

Pages:

91-93

2019

June

Conidiophores, Fungi, Tripospermum

The present paper was based on the hyphomycetous fungi infecting leaves Pogostemon plectranthoids the confined to Dhamoni, North Sagar Forest Division, M.P. State. The hyphomycetes fungi are called the fungi imperfecti and are grouped in the class Deuteromycetes. The study was focused at the identification of a new species of Tripospermum (T.dhamonica sp. nov.) on living leaves of Pogostemon plectranthoids are the only one species found and compared with allied taxa.

21

Primary productivity and limnology of Domari dam, Beed (M.S.)

Prashant V. Patil

Pages:

95-96

2019

June

Primary productivity, Physico-chemical properties, Limonology, Dam water

The study comprises the primary productivity and various physico-chemical parameters i.e air temperature, water temperature, free carbon dioxide, dissolved oxygen content, pH, alkalinity, turbidity of Domari dam, Beed (M.S.). The study deals with the aquatic pollution load of the dam for pisciculture activities. The pisciculture practices were carried in this dam since its establishment. The results showed that primary productivity and physicochemical properties of dam water are within the permissible limits.

Society of Life Sciences

LSB
e - ISSN: 2321-7952
Print ISSN: 0973-5453X
News
Subscriptions
Hard Copy Subscription
Coming Issues
Categories
Animal Science
Agricultural Science
Biotecnology
Microbiology and Virology
Environment
Medical and Forensics
Plant Science
Anatomy and Physiology
Biology
Neuroscience
Ecology
Zoology
1/25
Website Visit Counter
NJLS
e - ISSN: 2321-7960
Print ISSN: 0972-995X