Year: 2018, Issue: December

16

Eco-toxicological impact of mercury contained amended effluent of a chlor-alkali industry on a blue-green alga under controlled conditions and its implications.

A. Uma Mahesh and A. K. Panigrahi

Pages:

81-86

2018

December

Chlor-alkali industry, Mercury, Toxicity, BGA, Pigments.

Chlor-alkali industries occupy an important place so far as pollution of the environment with mercury is concerned. Main aspects of pollution with regard to chlor-alkali industry are the release of mercury into the environment. The effluent of a chlor-alkali industry (M/s. Jayashree chemicals Pvt. Ltd., Ganjam) showed significant variation and difference in action at different concentrations. The highest concentration showed typical mercurial toxic symptoms, beyond which survival of the alga became extremely difficult and at times, impossible under laboratory controlled conditions. The blue-green alga is more tolerant and less sensitive to toxicants. At higher concentration, all most all the growth parameters studied showed declining trend in exposed cultures, when compared to control cultures. At lower concentration of amended effluent all the growth parameters showed an increasing trend in the exposed culture, when compared to control culture. Hence, it can be concluded that the toxicant (mercury contained) showed dichotomous behaviour. The observed changes in the exposed cultures when compared to control cultures, was only due to the toxicant, amended effluent. No significant visible morphometric change was noticed in the exposed alga. At higher concentration, bleaching of the cells was marked. Stimulation of growth was not marked at lower concentration of the toxicant as all growth parameters showed lower values, when compared to the control value. Inhibition of growth was recorded at higher concentrations of the toxicant as all growth parameters showed significantly low values. At all exposed concentrations, the optical density and dry weight of the exposed alga decreased when compared to control indicating stress. Hence, the effluent should be diluted and properly treated to remove the total mercury present in the effluent before discharge into the environment.

17

Eco-toxicological effects of lead nitrate on the growth and pigment content of Eleusine coracana, Gaertn in pot culture under laboratory conditions.

Sabita Barik and Alaka Sahu

Pages:

87-92

2018

December

Lead, Residual level, Ragi seedlings, Ragi plants, Pigments, Protein, FAA.

Experiments were conducted at 14.6 mg of lead nitrate kg-1 dry soil mixture, as MAC dose in pot cultures. The dose was given once for short term experiments (6th days), twice for 15th days and thrice for 30th days to maintain constancy of the medium. Maximum residual lead accumulation was found in root when compared to leaf or shoot in different days of exposure. The shoot of the seedling after 30th days of exposure showed 5.66±0.18 mg of lead g-1 dry weight on 30th day old seedlings. The root of the seedling showed 2.11±0.11 mg of lead g-1 dry weight on 6th day old seedlings. The root of the seedling after 15th days of exposure showed 4.26±0.19 mg of lead g-1 dry weight on 15th day old seedlings. The root of the seedling after 30th days of exposure showed 4.97±0.28 mg of lead g-1 dry weight on 30th day old seedlings. The root being the primary site of absorption at the first place recorded the maximum amount of lead. The absorbed lead was translocated to shoot and leaf, hence at all exposure periods the exposed root showed maximum amount of accumulation and the impact was high on roots than the shoot. The chlorophyll, phaeophytin, carotenoid, protein and free amino acid content of the lead exposed seedlings and plant, significantly declined at all exposure periods and the impact was severe on 30th day old ragi plants.

18

Phytochemical analysis of some plants used in gynecological disorder by tribal people of Mohla Manpur area of Chhattisgarh.

Awadhesh Kumar Shrivastava, Suneeta Patra, Anita Mahiswar and Pranita Bansode

Pages:

93-100

2018

December

Gynecological disorder, Tribal people.

Awareness of medicinal plant uses is a result of the many years of struggle against illness due to which man learned to pursue drugs in fruits seeds, rhizomes, leaves and other parts of the plant. Tribal people due to lack of medicinal facilities using natural resources like plants since ancient time and passes this information from one generation to another in their families by oral means, so this important information may vanished due to lack of documentation. The aim of this study was to conduct an ethnobotanical survey, focusing on lay people's knowledge on plants used to treat many gynecological and obstetric complaints.76 plants were used by tribal peoples of Mohla Manpur region of district Rajnandgaon in Chhattisgarh state belonging to 45 families of angiosperm used in 18 gynecological diseases by its 7 parts. Analysis and presence of 10 secondary metabolites and 3 primary metabolites confirms their medicinal value

19

An overview of bioconcrete and biogrouts with microbiologically induced calcite precipitation (MICP).

Mohammad Rizwan Bhina, Waseem Khan, Arvind Kumar Tripathi, Mohammad Shahid Masroor and Mohammad Salim

Pages:

101-107

2018

December

Bacteria, Bioconcrete, Self healing, Concrete cracks.

The present paper deals with the study and scope of bioconcretes prepared with the applications of urease producing bacteria like Bacillus subtilis to produce rather more powerful and strengthen calcium carbonated bioconcrete and biogrouts in future. The paper discusses the overall methodology of bacterial culture, biotechnology of bioconcrete production and their physicochemical and bioengineering properties in the light of recent researches done so far in the same field. This could be a novel strategy to restore the concrete structures with the help of biominerlaziation of CaCO using bacteria in future. This is also called as microbiologically induced calcite precipita- 3 tion (MICP) and perhaps, one of the most important multidisciplinary works done so far in the fields of microbiology with civil engineering.

20

Reclamation of effluent of a sugar industry by blue-green algae.

Poonam Mangaraj, Sunil K. Bishoyie and A. K. Panigrahi

Pages:

109-112

2018

December

Reclamation, Sugar industry effluent, Phytoremediation.

The present piece of work was designed to reclamate the sugar industry effluent by blue-green algae. The effluent of the sugar mill at 3.0% dilution level is safe and did not show any toxic effect rather showed better growth by Westiellopsis when compared to Anabaena. Westiellopsis and Anabaena both could change the brown colour of the effluent to a higher degree when compared to other BGA studied. The study indicated that Westiellopsis is a better choice over Anabaena and can be used as phytoreclamation agents.

21

Reclamation of the effluent of a chlor-alkali industry by environmental chemicals in presence of a cyanobacterium.

N. H. H. Verma, A. Leelaveni and A. K. Panigrahi

Pages:

113-120

2018

December

Chlor-alkali industry, Mercury pollution, Effluent, Cyanobacterium, Detoxification, Phytoremediation

Maximum concentration mercury was recorded in the effluent channel of the chlor-alkali industry. A maximum of 2.65 mg l-1 was recorded, which is much more than the stipulated limit of 0.01 mg l-1, set by Pollution Control Board. Effluent and sediment samples showed significant variable levels of mercury concentration at different sites. Highest level of mercury in both water and sediment was obtained at the junction zone where effluent channel meets the river water. Out of 10 varieties of chemicals tried only selenium dioxide showed positive results and other chemicals showed negative results. Panchagavya a formulation prepared in the laboratory did not show any positive result. Rather panchagavya showed negative effects along with mercury. Toxicity testing indicated that the effluent (mercury contained) showed dichotomous behaviour, at lower concentrations stimulating effects were observed and at higher concentrations inhibitory effects were observed. The exposed alga accumulated 1.22±0.09 μg, 2.42±0.52 μg and 3.92±0.88 μg of Hg/50 ml culture after 15th days of exposure in 0.45% (X), 1.6% (Y) and 3.8% (Z) effluent concentration, respectively. After 15th days of recovery period, 68.5%, 23.97% and 19.89% of mercury removal / excretion was marked in X, Y & Z effluent concentrations, respectively. At lower concentration exposure, higher percent of mercury removal was marked, when compared to higher concentration exposure. The cyanobacterium, Westiellopsis prolifica, Janet could volatilize mercury from the medium as seen from the experiment designed by us in our laboratory. The exposed alga could volatilize 1.93 μg, 3.94 μg and 5.14 μg of mercury in X, Y and Z concentrations within a period of 15th days. The exposed alga could accumulate 1.26 μg, 2.62 μg and 3.94 μg of mercury within 15th days in X, Y and Z effluent concentrations. The exposed alga could remove 98.46%, 56.94% and 35.83% of total mercury present in the medium of 0.45% (X), 1.6% (Y) and 3.8% (Z) effluent concentration either by residual accumulation or by volatilization. In the entire process 0.93%, 2.86% and 1.82% of mercury was lost/unseen/not traceable in 0.45% (X), 1.6% (Y) and 3.8% (Z) concentrations, respectively. The pigment analysis and photosynthetic efficiency studies indicated the possible use of a chemical for reclamation. None of the chemicals indicated any promise except selenium dioxide where mercury had no effect and removal of mercury was a possibility.

22

Impact of leachate chemicals of red mud waste of alumina industry on the toxicity studies, seed biological studies of a crop plant.

Swarnalata Patnaik, A. Leelaveni and A. K. Panigrahi

Pages:

121-125

2018

December

Red mud waste, RM waste leachate, Toxicity, Seed germination, Seedling establishment, Temperature stress.

The leached chemicals of the red mud pond at Damonjodi pollutes the surrounding environment, particularly the crop fields, where green gram is cultivated as a second crop of the year after either rice or ragi. The lethal concentration values deduced were MAC=0.2%; LC10 -1.25% and LC50 -2% leachate concentration. Hundred percent 10 50 mortality or LC100 was found to be 2.8% leachate concentration. Experiments were conducted to find out the percent- 100 age of seed germination, seedling establishment at different lethal concentrations of the leachate. Significant depletion in shoot and root length, fresh and dry weight, chlorophyll, phaeophytin, carotene pigments and its ratio values in red mud waste leachate exposed seedlings showed much variation when compared to control values. At very low concentrations the chemicals as singular unit or as a complex unit might trigger higher rate of photosynthesis or higher values of chlorophyll content. But this can not be attributable to either stimulatory effect or regulatory effect of the toxicant. Little increment of chlorophyll pigment at lower concentration of the leachate can be attributed to the triggering affect but not stimulatory affect of the toxicant. All care should be taken to dispose the wastes of the industry in the mega environment, where complex interaction patterns are not well known and well understood.

23

Molecular evolutionary genetic analysis of endosulfan degrading Aspergillus oryzae isolated from contaminated Indian agricultural soil.

Tanuja, Satyamvada Swayamprabha, Anjali Singh, J. K. Singh and Swati

Pages:

127-132

2018

December

Endosulfan, Aspergillus oryzae, Agitation, Biodegradation, Pesticides.

Detoxification of pesticides through biological means is receiving serious attention as an alternative to existing methods. In this perspective molecular and phylogenetic analysis of fungal strain FS 1 identified as Aspergillus oryzae was isolated and selected for the present study. In vitro biodegradation of endosulfan under agitating conditions was comparatively more than that under stationary conditions. TLC and HPLC analysis revealed the formation of various intermediates of endosulfan metabolism including endosulfan diol, endosulfan lactone and endosulfan ether. Interestingly, endosulfan sulfate; a persistent and toxic metabolite was not detected indicating complete mineralization of endosulfan. The results of this study suggest that the isolated strain could be a valuable source of potent endosulfan-degrading enzymes for use in bioremediation.

24

Impact of cadmium on the toxicity and growth of a blue green alga under experimental conditions.

Nibedita Padhy and A. K. Panigrahi

Pages:

133-137

2018

December

Toxicology, Cadmium, Toxicity, Growth, BGA.

Toxicity tests were designed to find out safe level of toxicants and different lethal concentration values for a particular organism or for different types of organisms. In the present investigation, a graded series of concentra- tions of the cadmium chloride was prepared ranging from 0.1 to 1.0 mg.l-1 (micro-range), to evaluate the toxic effects of cadmium chloride on the blue-green alga and to find out maximum allowable concentration of the toxicant. With the increase in the concentration of the toxicant the percent survival decreased and hundred percent deaths were noticed at 0.94 mg.l-1 of cadmium chloride with in a period of 15th days. With the increase in exposure period the concentration of cadmium decreased at a particular lethal dose/concentration value. The maximum allowable concentration (MAC) recorded for this alga for 15th days exposure was 0.21 mg l-1. The lethal concentration values for 15th days of exposure pe- riods have been outlined below. The LC10 value was 0.34 mg l-1. The LC50 value was 0.58 mg l-1. LC90 value was 0.84 mg l-1  and LC100 value was 0.94 mg.l-1, for this particular alga, Anabaena cylindrical. The control set showed 100% survival 100 through out the experimental periods. The dry weight showed an initial increase at conc. A up to 6th day of exposure and with the increase in exposure period the dry weight decreased significantly. At conc. B and C, the dry weight decreased significantly at all exposure periods. Complete bleaching of the algal mass inside the test solution (B & C) was observed from 3rd day of exposure period onwards. Gradually tiny blue-green particles started making their appearance in the white turbid mass as observed in the naked eye after 5th days of recovery period onwards.

25

Impact of temperature stress and leachate chemicals of red mud waste of alumina industry on the toxicity studies, seed germination and seedling establishment of a crop plant.

Swarnalata Patnaik, A. Leelaveni and A. K. Panigrahi

Pages:

139-142

2018

December

Red mud waste, RM waste leachate, Toxicity, Seed germination, Seedling establishment, Temperature stress.

The leached chemicals of the red mud pond at Damonjodi pollutes the surrounding environment, particularly the crop fields, where either rice or green gram and black gram were cultivated. The lethal concentration values deduced were MAC=0.2%; LC10 -1.25% and LC50 -2% leachate concentration. LC100 was found to be 2.8% leachate concentration. Experiments were conducted to find out the percentage of seed germination, seedling establishment at different concentrations of the leachate. The second set of experiment was designed to find out the impact of temperature stress on the seed germination and seedling establishment in toxic environments. It was observed that lower temperature has no significant impact on the seed germination and seedling establishment when compared to higher temperature. Higher temperature significantly affected the seed germination and seedling establishment in toxic environments.

26

Salmonella typhi causing gallbladder cancer in human.

Mohammad Shahid Masroor, Mohammad Salim and Shagufta Parween

Pages:

143-144

2018

December

Salmonella typhi, Typhoid, Gallbladder cancer.

Gallbladder cancer is relatively uncommon but second most cancer caused by bacteria. The link between Salmonella typhi as a carcinogen and the development of cancer in gallbladder has already been established (Scanu et al.,2015 and Jill et al.,2016). This might be a surprising truth for us to learn that the S.typhi after an infection usually persisted in the gallbladder for a longer period of time causing cancer in human. The present paper deals with the study of causes and the consequences of typhoid fever and the production of gallbladder carcinoma in human.

27

On a new species of the genus Cotugnia (Diamare,1893) from Acridotheres tristis Nilanga, Tq. Nilanga, dist. Lature (M.S.)

Ravi Solunke, Swati Phadke and Sunita Borde

Pages:

145-148

2018

December

Acridotheres, Cotugnia, Latur, Testes

The present communication, deals with the description of a new species, as C.nilangaensis Sp. Nov. under the same genus, which is collected from the Indian myna, Acridotheres tristis at Nilanga, Tq. Nilanga, dist. Latur (M.S.) in the month of September, 2013. The new species Cotugnia nilangaensis is comes closer to all the known species of the genus Cotugnia in general topography of organ but differs due to scolex squarish with four suckers, armed rostellum with 480 hooks, 80-90(84) number of testes, genital pore anterior to the middle of the segment, ovary indistinctly bilobed, vagina posterior to cirrus pouch, vitelline gland medium and triangular in shape.

28

Toxicological effects of leachate of red mud pond of Nalco on the tissue slice respiration rate of different organs of a fresh water fish, Oreochromis mossambicus, Peters under laboratory conditions.

Manasi Kumari Panda, P. K. Dixit and A. K. Panigrahi

Pages:

149-152

2018

December

Alumna industry, RM waste, Leached chemicals, Effluent waste, Fresh water fish, Tissue slice respiration

This study was aimed to study the impact of the leached waste (effluent) from the red mud pond of Alumina industry (NALCO) situated at Damonjodi, Koraput on the tissue slice respiration rate of brain, liver, muscle and gill tissues of a fresh water fish, Oreochromis mossambicus, Peters (Tilapia) and its ecological significance. Laboratory acclimatized fresh water fishes were exposed to the sub-lethal dose (3.1%) of the effluent in 50 liters of water in an aquarium for 28th days. Exposed fishes appeared lethargic soon after they were exposed to the toxicant and it was more noticeable after 7th days of exposure, when compared to the control fish. The tissue slice respiration rate of brain, liver, muscle and gill tissues of the exposed fish decreased significantly after 7th days of exposure onwards. The tissue slice respiration rate of different tissues declined significantly with the increase in exposure period and maximum depletion was noted on 28th day of exposure. The exposed fishes were allowed to recover in toxicant free water for 28th days for recovery studies. Significant recovery was not observed in 28th day exposed fishes. During recovery period, the exposed fishes started dying indicating damage done to the metabolic system. The effluent waste significantly affected the respiration rate of the exposed fish indicating the acute toxic nature of the toxicant. The exposed fish could not recover to its pre-test activity even after 56th days of recovery, double the exposure period indicating damage to vital systems. Control fish remained clinically healthy for the entire period of experimentation.

29

Studies on parasitism of gram pod borer (Helicoverpa armigera) by Campoletis chloridae.

Anju Tiwari and Shubhada Rahalkar

Pages:

153-154

2018

December

Gram pod borer, Helicovepra armigera, Campoletis chloridae, Parasitism.

Weekly percent parasitism of H.armigera by Campoletis chloridae indicated the peak parasitism in the month of February followed in January. Temperatures i.e. maximum, minimum recorded during the peak activity of the parasite (6th-9th weeks) were ranged between 27.5°C-30.4°C and 12.1°C- 15.0°C respectively. While, relative humidity existed during the above weeks was comparatively low and ranged between 82%-92% (RH I) and 37%-93% (RH II) showing great fluctuation in RH II. Rains occurred in 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 5th, 6th, 8th and 9th weeks however, intensity of rainfall was extremely low.

30

Limnological status of Juggar dam Hindaun city of district Karauli (Rajasthan)

B. K. Gupta and Bhupendra Pal Jatav

Pages:

155-156

2018

December

Limnological status.

The paper deals with the analysis of some physico-chemical characteristics of water of a fresh water reservoir, Juggar dam Hindaun city, for a period of six months from January-June,2009. The study revealed that the parameters (Temperature, pH, Total dissolved solids, Dissolved oxygen, Free CO , Nitrate, Chloride, Calcium hardness, 2 Magnesium and Biochemical oxygen demand) are within the permissible limits and support good water quality in terms of cleanness and potability. The study emphasized the need to utilize this water body resource for pisciculture and drinking purposely application of scientific management technique for the socio-economic development of the neighboring people.

31

Impact of Carica papaya L. juice on plasma variables in induced hyperglycemic albino rats.

D. N. Pandit, S. Singh, U. S. Sinha and R. R. Singh

Pages:

157-159

2018

December

Papaya, Albino rats, Hyperglycemia, Diabetes.

It was aimed at to evaluate the activity of Carica papaya fruit juice on induced diabetic rats (Rattus norvegicus) with a view of proposing a management scheme. Animals were sacrificed after treatment with unripe and ripe papaya juice. The plasma glucose, cholesterol and protein were estimated. Feeding of papaya juice rose significantly (p<0.05) the levels of these parameters more than the controlled value throughout the work. The rise was more with unripe papaya when compared to ripe papaya. However, papaya intake must be rationed since its consumption increases blood glucose concentration.

32

Evaluation of changes in bone mineral density with age in post menopausal women.

Meenakshi Mayangar Marmath

Pages:

161-164

2018

December

Osteoporosis, BMD, Post-menopausal, Age.

One of the major geriatric problems especially in females is osteoporosis. The present study evaluates change in bone mineral density with progression of age in females in Kota city. It was observed that age of a female has a significant association with osteoporosis.

33

Chronic toxicity of nickel and chromium on oxygen consumption in a freshwater fish, Anabas testudineus (Bloch).

Dina Nath Pandit, Priyanka and Moti Lal Gupta

Pages:

165-167

2018

December

Anabas testudienus, Nickel, Chromium, Oxygen consumption, Chronic Toxicity.

The effect of chronic toxicity after 10th days, 20th days and 30th days of three sub-lethal doses of nickel and chromium on bimodal oxygen consumption was determined using closed glass respirometer in Anabas testudineus. The mean aerial oxygen consumption increased from 82.8-88.27 and 83.02-94.65 ml O /kg/hr in nickel and chromium 2 treated fish. The aquatic and total oxygen consumption decreased from 77.49-45.58 and 160.29-135.05 ml O /kg/hr in 2 nickel intoxicated fish. On the other hand, in chromium treated fish, the decrease in aquatic and total oxygen consumption was respectively from 80.98-37.61 and 159.85-132.26 ml O /kg/hr. The work indicates that nickel toxicity has 2 less effect to this fish in comparison to chromium.

34

Fish diversity of Budhi Gandak river, Begusarai (Bihar).

Vandana Kumari

Pages:

169-171

2018

December

Fish diversity, Budhi gandak, Cypriniformes

Fish diversity is a good indicator of any aquatic ecosystem. An effort has been made to study the fish diversity of Budhi Gandak river, one of the main tributaries of river Ganga. The work has been conducted between January, 2016 and March, 2017. During the study, 44 fish species belonging to 26 Genera, 13 Families and 7 Orders have been identified. Cypriniformes was found the dominated Order with 17 species (39%) followed by Siluriiformes 11 species (25%), Perciiformes 7 species (16%) and minimum of 2 species (4%) of Clupeiformes and Osteoglossiformes. The status of the species included 5 as vulnerable one. The present study showed that Begusarai possesses rich fish diversity but proper conservation measures are required to maintain sustainability and richness of the species diversity of the district.

35

Seasonal fluctuations of different zooplanktonic groups at Santoshi Mata Talab of Satna (M.P.).

Priyanka Singh, R. C. Tripathi and Shivesh Pratap Singh

Pages:

172-174

2018

December

Seasonal fluctuations, Zooplankton diversity.

The zooplankton of any wetland play a vital role for converting phytoplankton in to food, which is suitable for fish and aquatic animals. Hence qualitative and quantitative studies of zooplankton are of great ecological importance. The Santoshi Mata Talab of Satna city was selected as a one of study site for the present study. This talab is a major source of drinking water for the nearby population and also utilized for pisciculture, washing of vehicles, cattles, cloths and disposal of domestic sewage and ash of dead bodies. The samples of zooplankton were collected on the monthly basis from January, 2016 to December, 2016 and identified using standard keys.

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