Year: 2017, Issue: December

17

Isolation, identification and use of malathion degrading microorganisms for the removal of malathion pesticide from contaminated waters.

Shalini A. Tandon and Radhika Deore

Pages:

71-75

2017

December

Pesticides, Malathion, Bioremediation, Microbial Consortium, 16S rRNA.

Malathion is one of the pesticides which is commonly used in Agriculture in India. In this study, microbial strains effective in degrading Malathion were isolated from the soil samples treated with Malathion. Isolated bacterial strains were exposed to 10 mg/l of technical grade Malathion to determine the degradation efficiency. Significant degradation of Malathion i.e. 43% by C1 and 40% by C2, was observed in 10th days under laboratory conditions. C1 was identified as Staphylococcus arlettae and C2 as Flexivirga using 16S rRNA technique.

18

Effect of BGA (Phormidium) extracts on seed germination of soyabean (Glycine max).

S. G. Yadav

Pages:

77-79

2017

December

Phormidium mucosum, Seed germination, Algal extracts, Soyabean.

Algae are important members of plant world and several of them are significant to man in many ways. They are beneficial in the field of Agriculture, Industry, Medical Science, Space research, Bio-diesel production and Bio-remediation. They gain importance in the modern time not only as an alternative potential source of protein for man but also as the primary source of food for aquatic animals. Algae are also considered as rich source of fats, vitamins, minerals and antimicrobial compounds. It was also observed that the algae are found to be stimulatory for the seed germination and plant growth. In the present investigation, extracts of Phormidium mucosum were prepared in different solvents and used to study their effects on seed germination of soyabean. The minimum percentage of germination was recorded in toluene extract (65%) which was similar to control and maximum percentage was recorded in acetone extract (100%) and followed by hot water, chloroform and petroleum ether (85%). The cold water, methanol, and ethanol algal extracts showed good percentage (75%). Present investigation reveals that, Phormidium mucosum contains certain growth promoting substances which enhances the seed germination of soyabean.

19

Possible reclamation of solid waste of a chlor-alkali industry by BGA and phytoremediation by plant extract under controlled conditions.

Jhilli Prabha Prusti and A. K. Panigrahi

Pages:

81-89

2017

December

Reclamation, BGA, Solid waste, Chlor-alkali industry, Phytoremediation, Plant extract

The present piece of work deals with major aspects of mercurial pollution by a chlor-alkali industry. The present piece of work was designed to study the effect of the Neem and Jatropha extract on the Solid Waste Extract (SWE) and amended SWE of a chlor-alkali industry on the blue-green alga, Westiellopsis prolifica, Janet and to find out a possible use of plant extracts (secondary metabolites) for reclamation of SWE and ASWE of the chlor-alkali industry. A graded series of concentrations of the SWE and amended SWE was prepared and a pure culture of the alga, Westiellopsis prolifica, Janet was inoculated to find out percent survival. From this, the lethal concentration values were determined. The below three concentrations were selected- SWE LC00 =0.1 m 50 ml culture; SWE LC10 =0.2 ml/0ml culture; SWE LC50 =0.3 ml/50 ml culture and ASWE LC00 =0.1 ml/50ml culture; ASWE LC10 =0.2 ml/50 ml culture; ASWE LC50 =0.3 ml/50 ml culture for future experiments. No significant visible morphometric change was no- 50 ticed in the exposed BGA. At higher concentrations of the SWE and ASWE, bleaching of the filaments was marked. In other sets no bleaching was marked. Stimulation of growth was marked at lower concentration of the toxicant, as all growth parameters showed higher values, when compared to the control value. The data indicated that during 15th days of exposure, growth was restricted and all the pigments disappeared in the SWE and ASWE standard control without application any extract, might be due to disintegration of the pigments in the tubes. The optical density value showed normal growth in the control set. No significant trend was recorded. The OD and dry weight data showed increase in plant leaf extract applied cultures when compared to control as observed was indicative as non-parameter to assess toxicity. Significant increase in chlorophyll content was recorded in exposed cultures where plant leaf extract was applied when compared to the control value was marked. Significant increase in phaeophytin content was recorded in plant leaf extract treatment, when compared to the control value and pure line waste treatment. Carotenoid content showed a similar trend as observed in case of chlorophyll and phaeophytin content change. The changes noted in phycocyanin, phycoerythrin and allophycocyanin content indicated that the plant leaf extract detoxifies the mercury contaminated wastes, the wastes might be the solid waste or SWE or ASWE or effluent. From the present experiment, it can be concluded that the cyanobacterium, Neem and Jatropha plant leaf extract can be applied in combination to the mercury contaminated wastes for total reclamation or detoxification.

20

Green algal diversity of Damodar basin, Burdwan, West Bengal (India).

Prasanta Mallick

Pages:

91-94

2017

December

Green algae, Diversity, Damodar basin, Burdwan (W.B.)

The present communication deals with eighteen taxa belonging to the Chlorophyceae including five major orders namely Oedogoniales, Conjugales, Chaetophorales, Chlorococcales and Cladophorales. Conjugales also associated with both Zygnematacee and Desmidiaceae. Oedogoniales deals with both macrandrous and nannandrous types.

21

Role of primary productivity, phyto-pigments and water quality in selected stations of Chillika lake at Barkul, Odisha.

Sunil K. Pattanaik, K. S. Bhatta and A. K. Panigrahi

Pages:

95-100

2017

December

Primary productivity, Phytoplankton, Pigments, Water quality, Chilika lake.

Chilika is one of the hotspots of biodiversity in India. It's part freshwater and part saltwater character, very high productivity and the presence of a variety of habitats in and around the lake allow the proliferation of an amazing number of species. Chilika is one of the terminuses on the migratory flyways and some of the largest congregations of aquatic birds in India can be seen here, particularly in winter. Because of high production rate, marine fish population find this spot to be a good breeding ground and growth of variety of fishes. The gross primary productivity (GPP) was varied between 22.4 and 187.9 mgC/hr/m3 covering 12 months among 15 different stations of Chilika lake. The highest was recorded at station 2 of May and lowest at station 6 of October. The monthly average productivity showed a clearly increasing trend towards summer months, where highest was recorded during May (131.3 mgC/m3/hr) and lowest dur- ing October (50.6 mgC/hr/m3). From the standard deviation values (monthly), it was observed that spatial variation (among stations) were not many differences among 12 different months. The high productivity during April-June reflected high phytoplankton abundance in Chilika lake water. CR has very good positive correlation with Chl-a (0.660, p>0.01), GPP (0.860, p>0.01), water temperature (0.264, p>0.01), turbidity (0.339, p>0.01), BOD (0.347, p>0.01), NO 3 (0.209, p>0.01) and PO (0.246, p>0.01). High negative relationships of NPP (-0.364, p>0.01), depth (-0.517, p>0.01), 4 transparency (-0.325), pH (-0.195, p>0.01), DO (-0.217, p>0.01) with CR established by the Pearson's correlation matrix. The water temperature plays and accelerate role in regulating net production capacity in a lake ecosystem. The pH, DO and nutrients were also playing vital role for regulating NPP and GPP values. A weak positive correlation between NPP and GPP proves moderately health of the lake ecosystem. It was established that higher production was not governed by a single factor or single water quality parameters. There are several environmental factors acting simultaneously which must be taken in to consideration while evaluating the production capacity of an aquatic ecosystem.

22

Eco-toxicological interaction studies on leached chemicals of red mud waste of alumina industry and a pesticide on the seed biology of a crop plant under laboratory controlled conditions.

Swarnalata Pattanaik, A. Leelaveni and A. K. Panigrahi

Pages:

101-108

2017

December

Alumina industry, Red mud waste, Red mud waste extract, Pestiocide, Seed germination, Pigments.

The red mud waste of the Alumina industry causes environmental contamination in the Damojodi area at Koraput district. The leached chemicals from the red mud pond enter into neighboring crop fields and cause severe damage to rice crop. The red mud waste was brought to the laboratory in plastic containers and kept in refrigerator for studies. The red mud waste was air dried and powdered. The dried red mud waste was taken and an extract was prepared in the laboratory. Graded series of concentrations of the red mud waste extract were prepared along with soil and cow dung mixture (3:1) and germination studies were conducted to find out lethal concentration values. During germination a regularly used pesticide was also applied at a recommended dose to see the impact and interaction both the toxicants. With the increase in red mud waste concentration, the germination of seeds decreased significantly. The lethal concentration values increased and the percent survival decreased with the increase in waste concentration. With the application of the RMW extract, along with the recommended dose of a pesticide most of the parameters showed a declining trend in the exposed seedlings when compared to control seedlings. No stimulation or better growth was observed at sub-lethal dose of both the toxicants. The mean root and shoot length decreased in all exposed seedlings. No stimulation was marked. The root and shoot fresh weight and dry weight decreased with the increase in toxicant concentration. The total chlorophyll content decreased significantly from 1.19 mg/gm (Control) to 1.01 mg/ gm at 1.5 ppm RMWE concentration. which was the LC10 concentration and it decreased significantly to 0.11 mg/gm at 5 ppm of the RMW extract at the highest select concentration. Total pjhaeophytin and total carotene significantly decreased with the increase in RMWE concentration. The RMWE exposed leaves curled and browning of the tips were noticed in the exposed seedlings. Browning and swellings of the roots were marked in all the RMWE exposed seedlings when compared to control seedlings. Shoot was not seen in the exposed seedlings at higher concentrations, however root was present. The study on seed biology indicated that the red mud waste dumped by the industry is deadly toxic and if released accidentally even into the environment, will cause environmental havoc.

23

Caryopsis morphology of some grasses.

Ajai Kumar Singh, Manish Kumar Srivastava and Ayush Kumar Singh

Pages:

109-113

2017

December

Micromorphology, Caryopsis, Grasses.

Caryopses of 15 grasses belonging to 6 tribes and 10 genera, collected from Vindhyan region of Uttar Pradesh, India are analyzed from micromorphological view point. The morphological parameters employed for the differentiation of caryopses of reported taxa are Apex, Base, Colour, Compression, Embryo (percentage, size and type), Length, Breadth, Length/Breadth ratio (L:B), Shape, Scutellum shape, Striations, Texture and Ventral groove. Taxonomic key and a collage of photograph is provided to facilitate easy identification of reported grass taxa.

24

Impact of mercury contained leached chemicals of solid waste of a chlor-alkali industry on BGA and its ecological implications.

Alaka Sahu

Pages:

115-118

2017

December

Leached chemicals, Solid waste, Chlor-alkali industry, Mercury, BGA, Algal pigments.

The toxicity and impact of solid waste extract of the solid waste of a chlor-alkali industry was studied on a crop field inhabiting blue-green alga. The exposed alga accumulated significant amount of mercury during the period of experiment. Significant decrease in dry weight, chlorophyll content, phaeophytin and carotene content which are important pigments responsible for photosynthesis was observed and the toxicant containing mercury affected these pigments drastically. Where as, at lower concentration (sub-lethal) no inhibitory effect was observed, Rather the toxicant containing mercury showed stimulatory effect, where, dry weight, chlorophyll and phaeophytin content increased significantly when compared to control algal pigments. Significant amount of residual mercury in BGA was responsible for the damage caused to the exposed BGA at higher concentrations of the SE. Hence, care should be taken to dispose the dumped solid waste so that the leached chemicals will not enter into crop fields.

25

Toxicological effects of leached chemicals of red mud waste of Nalco on a fresh water fish and its ecological implications.

Manasi Kumari Panda, P. K. Dixit and A. K. Panigrahi

Pages:

119-124

2017

December

Alumna industry, Fish, toxicity, Leached chemicals, Effluent waste, Toxicity, LSI, BSI.

The present study was designed to study of effects of the leached effluent of Alumina industry (NALCO) situated at Damonjodi, Koraput on a fresh water fish, Oreochromis mossambicus, Peters (Tilapia) and its ecological significance. The effluent of the industry was tested and found to be deadly toxic. The effluent along with the red mud wastes generated from the industry was dumped in the Red mud pond for storage and for natural evaporation. Fishes were exposed to graded series of concentrations of the effluent for acute toxicity studies. The MAC value deduced was 3.15% of effluent in 50 liters of water for 30th days. A safety concentration of 3.1% of effluent l-50 was selected for this study. The LC10 , LC50 , LC90 and LC100 , determined for Tilapia fish was found to be 3.45, 8.15, 12.6 and 15.5%. l-50 respectively after 30th days of exposure. Exposed fishes appeared lethargic when compared to the control fish. In appetence and ataxia was observed in the exposed fish after first day of introduction of the effluent. Effluent exposed fishes showed erratic movements, loss of equilibrium, gradual onset of inactivity when compared to the control fish. The body weight of the effluent exposed fish decreased significantly, when compared to control fish, where a significant increase in body weight was marked. In the exposed fish 53.2% decrease in body weight was marked on 28d exposure. When the exposed fish was transferred to toxicant free medium, partial recovery was noted. The body weight depleted by 51.7% during recovery period after 28th days. A partial recovery by 1.5% was noted. The BSI and HSI significantly declined in the leached effluent exposed fish when compared to the control fish. A maximum of 21.8% decrease was noted in BSI of leached effluent exposed fish, where partial recovery by 9.5% was noted after 28th days of recovery. The LSI decreased by 38.4% after 28th days of exposure and partial recovery by 10.5% was noted after 28th days of recovery when the exposed fish was transferred to toxicant free medium. The exposed fish could not recover to its pre-test activity even after 56th days of recovery double the exposure period indicating damage to vital systems.

26

Seasonal variations of phytochemical values of Aegle marmelos.

N. B. Khairnar and V. B. Kadam

Pages:

125-127

2017

December

Total ash, Water soluble ash, Water insoluble ash, Aegle marmelos

In the traditional system of medicine, medicinal plants form the back-bone in India. The photochemical ingredients from these medicinal plants serve as key compounds in drug discovery and design. A diverse range of bio active molecules are produced by plants which make them a rich source of different types of medicines. Aegle marmelos is commonly known as Bilva tree belong to family Rutaceae. This plant is considered as a medicinal tree as it has several curative properties in treating different diseases. The seasonal variation of total ash, acid soluble ash and acid insoluble ash have been investigated from leaves, wood, bark and root of Aegle marmelos, which are medicinally important. Comparative account of total ash, acid soluble ash and acid insoluble ash content of bark showed high level of total ash in summer season (14.900%) and low level of total ash content in root during monsoon season (6.700%). The water soluble ash showed higher level in bark during summer (5.475%) and lower in root of monsoon (2.100%). Comparative account of water insoluble ash in leaves showed higher (11.125%) in monsoon and lower in the root during monsoon (4.600%) as compared to other seasons.

27

Potential use of traditional plant species against Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris.

Surendra Kumar Bhardwaj, Shweta Sharma and Jitender Singh Laura

Pages:

129-133

2017

December

Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, Antibacterial, Plant-extracts, Phytochemicals.

The aqueous extracts of 50 plants were screened using agar diffusion for antibacterial activity against Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, a causal organism of black rot of cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) and cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis). The combined leaf extracts of Cannabis sativa and leaf extracts of Dalbergia sisoo in general exhibited strong antibacterial activity over individual extracts of leaf extracts of Cannabis sativa and Dalbergia sisoo against the bacterium's growth, respectively. Seed extract of Acacia arabicae and leaf extracts of Dedonia viscosa were next most effective against Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris. A few plant extracts also showed moderate activity against the test bacteria. Provide a summary statement indicating the importance of the work. The research work indicates that the use of plant extracts as antimicrobial agent to control plant pathogens is feasible and is cost effective as the material used is inexpensive. The major benefit is its being eco-friendly.

28

Assessment of limnological status of river Tons at Satna with respect to correlation matrix.

Rama Sharma and Shivesh Pratap Singh

Pages:

135-138

2017

December

Limnological status, Riven tons, Correlation matrix.

The present investigation was carried out on the Tons river, a tributary of the river Ganga from March, 2012-February,2014 at four stations to study the seasonal change of physico-chemical factors and correlation matrix. The constituents monitored included water temperature, pH, transparency, total alkalinity, total hardness, dissolved oxygen, biological oxygen demand, free carbon dioxide, chemical oxygen demand. Through out the study period the water was good and acceptable for human's consumption and fish culture.

29

Study of diversity of plant nematodes around sugarcane crop in Jalna district (M.S.) India.

Vishnu Barote, Sunita Borde and Raosaheb Barote

Pages:

139-142

2017

December

Diversity, Plant nematode, Sugarcane.

The present study is based on the survey of plant nematodes around sugarcane crop in different villages of Jalna district. Samples were collected around the roots of sugarcane from these villages. The frequency of occurrence and population varied from place to place which is simply indicated the fact that the study area is highly infested with different varieties of nematode genus i.e. Helicotylenchus, Xiphinema, Longidorus, Mylonchulus, Eudorylaimus, Neoactinolaimus, Hoplolaimus, Acrobeles.

30

Continuous increase in population of Indian sarus crane Grus antigone antigone in and around Alwara lake of district Kaushambi (U.P.).

Ashok Kumar Verma and Shri Prakash

Pages:

143-146

2017

December

Alwara lake, Sarus crane, Increasing trends, Conservation, Population comparison.

The Indian sarus crane Grus antigone antigone is the world's graceful and tallest flying bird. It is a nonmigratory and only resident breeding crane of Indian sub continent. It has been declared as 'State Bird' by Government of Uttar Pradesh. Pairing of the bird for life long and legendry marital devotion of the species has earned its global popularity. Ecological and environmental condition of this lake is quite supportive for the survival of this vulnerable species. The present study deals with the distribution and conservation of this vulnerable species in and around the Alwara lake of district Kaushambi, Uttar Pradesh. A total of 335 cranes were actually observed in 2012, 425 in 2013, 510 in 2014 and 537 in 2015, although more cranes were claimed to exist in this area by the local people. This communication is clearly depicting continuous increasing trend in population of Indian sarus crane during their exploration from 2012-2015 in the area studied, although its population is decreasing at global level.

31

Comparative study of protein content in Anoplocephalidean cestode and their host Capra hircus (L.) from Jalna district (M.S.) India.

Arun Gaware, Sunita Borde and Sapna Lahot

Pages:

147-148

2017

December

Anoplocephalidea, Capra hircus, Comparative study, Protein.

The present study deals with the comparative study of total protein content in the cestodes viz. Moniezia sp., Avetillina sp., Stilesia sp. and their host i.e. non-infected and infected intestinal tissue of Capra hircus from Jalna district (M.S.). The results obtained in the present study indicated that the amount of total protein in cestode Moniezia sp. was higher than Avetillina sp. and Stilesia sp. whereas in infected intestine host the amount of total protein contents was lower than the non-infected intestine of the host Capra hircus.

32

An economic valuation of disease health management in shrimp farming practices at Prakasam district Andhra Pradesh, India.

Tejavath Jagadeesh, R. Senthiladeban, Yarrakula Mahesh Babu, Mavurapu Anusha and Raja Kumar

Pages:

149-151

2017

December

Shrimp farming, BMPs, Health management, Financial losses.

A study was conducted to evaluate disease health management in shrimp farming. The study was carried out during 2014 in Prakasam district of Andhra Pradesh, where the shrimp culture is abundantly practiced by the farmers. Most of the shrimp farmers are faced some common curable diseases like black gill, white muscle, white gut and white fecal syndrome. Huge economic losses occur due to incidence of viral and other diseases in shrimp farms of India. To make a quantified assessment of these losses, the study was based on a survey of 120 fish farmers who owned small (<5 acres), medium (5-10 acres) and large (>10 acres) culture ponds. The study has elicited the shrimp diseases, health management costs, and physical and financial losses in shrimp production systems in Andhra Pradesh. The study has made suggestions to minimize health management costs and losses in aquaculture in Andhra Pradesh. The results of the study revealed that BMP farmers are producing the shrimp sustainably.

33

Screening and development of novel synthetic substitute Pyrazolophyrimidine-3-coumarins for semiochemicals against Spodoptera litura L. (Lepidoptera : Noctuidae).

P. Vijay Kumar

Pages:

153-156

2017

December

Semiochemicals, Antifeedant, Repellent, Coumarins, Spodoptera litura.

Coumarins with Pyrazolopyrimidine pendants at the third position were synthesized and evaluated for their activity as semiochemicals against insect Spodoptera litura L. (Lepidoptera : Noctuidae) to evaluate their repellant and antifeedant activity. The test solutions were prepared by dissolving 2 mg of the newly synthesized compound in 1 ml of chloroform. Among six compounds (1-6), compound 3 had shown highest antifeedent activity and compound 5 was with least antifeedent activity when compared to controlled leaf exposed fifth instar test insect larvae. This suggests that compound 3 could be developed in future as antifeedant and repellent against various insect pests in addition to Spodoptera litura based on further studies with other insects.

34

Bioinsecticidal effect of endophytic fungal extract of Azadirachta indica against Callosobruchus chinensis Linn. (Coleoptera : Bruchidae).

P. N. Jadhav and A. B. Pardeshi

Pages:

157-161

2017

December

Callosobruchus chinensis, Endophytic fungi, Mortality, Bioinsecticide, Azadirachta indica.

Endophytic fungi are microorganisms that live inside the plant without causing any over negative effect on plant tissues; rather they protect the host plant from pests and diseases. The insecticidal activity of endophytic fungal extract from leaf and seed of Azadirachta indica against pulse beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis, were studied. Endophytic fungi were isolated from the leaf and seed of Azadirachta indica. The various concentrations of methanol and ethyl acetate crude endophytic fungal extracts were tested against Callosobruchus chinensis. The percent mortality was recorded after 96h. The insecticidal activity of the endophytic fungi isolated from leaf of Azadirachta indica were (LD10 =19.81 mg/kg, LD50 =84.63 mg/kg) in methanol and (LD10 =39.17 mg/kg, LD50 =110.3 mg/kg) in ethyl acetate respectively. The fungi isolated from seed of Azadirachta indica were (LD10 =12.25 mg/kg, LD50 =39.80 mg/kg) in methanol and (LD10 =28.97 mg/kg, LD50 =60.20 mg/kg) in ethyl acetate respectively. The mortality increases with increase in concentration of endophytic fungi. The methanol solvent extract showed more insecticidal property against Callosobruchus chinensis due to the secondary metabolites of endophytic fungi. Statistical variance, 95% confidence limits and regression equations are presented.

35

Data assessment of avifauna in Pir Panchal range of temperate and sub tropical forest of Doda, J&K.

Ajaz A. Wani, Imteyaz Ahmed and Deep Narian Sahi

Pages:

163-166

2017

December

Inventorization, Doda, Pir Panchal, Himalaya, Avifauna.

The present study was carried out with the objective of inventorization of avifauna in district Doda which lies in the Pir Panchal Range of middle Himalayan chain of North West Himalaya which is approximately 170 km from winter Capital Jammu of J&K State. The study area lies between 32°53'' and 34°21'' North latitude and 75°1'' and 76°47'' East longitude and with an elevation ranging between 700-4800 m. The climate condition of the study area are variable ranging from temperate to sub-topical with an annual rainfall of 95-150 cm per annum and the temperature ranging between -5°C during winter and 35°C during summer. The study documents 71 species of birds belonging to 9 orders, 27 families 12 sub-families along with their resident/migrant status and abundance. Out of 71 species of birds, 41 species were resident, 27 species were summer migrant and 3 species were winter migrant.

36

Remarkable nesting behaviour of some residential birds in and around the Ajara city.

V. V. Ajagekar

Pages:

167-169

2017

December

Nest, Brood parasites, Foster parents

The present investigation is an attempt to study the remarkable nesting behavior of some residential birds in and around the Ajara city. A bird nest is the spot in which a bird lays and incubates its eggs and raises its young ones. Not all bird species build nests. Some species lay their eggs directly on the ground or rocky ledges, while brood parasites lay theirs in the nests of other birds, letting unwitting ""foster parents"" do all the work of rearing the young. Due to urbanization and over exploitation of trees, birds are in danger about their nesting sites and nesting behavior. Because of this nest location and architecture is strongly influenced by local topography and other abiotic factors.

37

Some behavioural studies of rhesus monkey in Satna district of M.P.

Chetna Sharma and Shivesh Pratap Singh

Pages:

170-172

2017

December

Behavioural study, Social interaction, Rhesus monkey

Rhesus monkey is one of the more aggressive macaques. The social interaction, grooming, play behaviour, feeding behaviour and reproductive behaviour are the common features of the rhesus monkeys. In villages and provisioned areas rhesus frequently come in contact with human beings. Rhesus troops are also live with hanuman langurs (Presbytis entellus) in hill and provisioned area of Babupur and Kardmeshwer dham of Satna district of M.P. During feeding behavior, a number of domestic animals i.e. cow, goat, buffalo, dog, pig etc. are also associated with habitat of rhesus monkeys around Babupur Kaniyari and Kardmeshwer dham. Grooming is the common behaviour of primates. Self grooming and mutual grooming in monkeys were observed in all sex and age. Reproductive behaviour was considerably bearing on social life. The adult rhesus is sexually receptive approximately at 3.5 years old. Play behaviour of juvenile and sub adult rhesus monkeys was also observed during present study.

38

Prevalence of hepatitis B and C in patients - A laboratory based study in urban areas of 

Andhra Pradesh.

C. Madhavi

Pages:

173-176

2017

December

HBV, HCV, Prevalence, HBs Ag, Anti-HCV.

Hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV) virus infections have remained recurring decimals in blood transfusion, vertical transmission, liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This study aimed to determine the prevalence of Hepatitis B (HBV) and Hepatitis C (HCV) viral infections among clinically suspected and diagnosed chronic liver disease patients visited various private hospitals during July,2017-August,2017. Rapid diagnostic tests were used to screen for HBsAg and anti-HCV antibodies among patients. Data was collected by using the laboratory reports and diagnostic reports screened for the presence of HBsAg and anti-HCV by serological tests. Of the 953 patients screened, 28(3%) were positive for Hepatitis B virus and 8(0.8%) were positive for Hepatitis C virus. The gender related prevalence of HBsAg was 3(4.2%) in females and 25(2.8%) in males. Anti-HCV was reactive in 33.3% of the males and 50% of the females. This study revealed the low prevalence 3.7%of apparently healthy individuals harboring each of the viruses (HBV and HCV). This finding is a cause for alarm.

39

Influence of altered pH media on the histology of hepatopancreas of prawn Litopenaeus vannamei during acute and chronic exposure.

T. Suneetha, T. Ramanamma and V. Sailaja

Pages:

177-180

2017

December

Altered pH, Acidic and alkaline, Histopathology of hepatopancreas, Litopenaeus vannamei.

We investigated the toxicity of acidic and alkaline pH and its effects on hepatopancreas of prawn Litopenaeus vannamei at long term and short term exposure. After exposure of different pH conditions such as 3.5, 4.5, 5.5, 6.5, 7.5, 8.5, 9.5, 10.5 for 24 hrs, 7th days, 15th days, 21th days and 30th days, the results showed that there was change in the histoarchitecture of hepatopancreas during acute exposure of acidic pH (24 hrs). Vast structural damages were found along with degenerative changes. At extreme acidic pH (3.5) high structural damage of hepatopancreas was observed. At extreme basic pH (10.5) mild structural damage of hepatopancreas tissue was identified. However during chronic exposure majority of prawns below 6.5 pH were died. They were not able to survive at extreme lower pH. There is no much structural differences at 6.5 pH. The prawn Litopenaeus vannamei was better tolerated at extreme basic pH up to 9.5. Only mild degenerative changes were found at 10.5 pH. The detailed histopathological changes that were recorded at altered pH media were discussed in the present study.

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