Year: 2016, Issue: December

24

Plant regeneration via somatic embryogenesis from the cultured immature male floral buds of banana genotype 'Dwarf Cavendish'.

Sugandh Suman, Manish Kumar and Harsh Kumar

Pages:

111-114

2016

December

Banana, Micropropagation, Dwarf cavendish, Immature male floral bud.
Immature male floral buds of banana cv. Dwarf Cavendish were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with different concentrations and combinations of 2,4-D (4.52, 9.05 and 18.10 ?M), IAA (5.71, 11.42 and 22.83 ?M), Kin (4.65, 9.30 and 18.60 ?M) and BAP (4.43, 8.87 and 17.74 ?M). The culture of the explants resulted in the generation of small, spherical and friable calli. These calli showed embryogenic characteristics and sub-cultured on the same medium for further maturation. After 5 months of culture on MS basal medium, somatic embryos started to regenerate. The somatic embryos were transferred to modified MS medium for regeneration into plantlets. Among the different combinations tried, MS +9.05 ?M 2,4-D + 18.60 ?M Kin was found to be the most suitable medium for somatic embryogenesis. Thus, an efficient protocol for plant regeneration via indirect somatic embryogenesis has been developed.

25

Effect of vehicular pollution on micro-morphological structure of road side plant species, Lantana camara.

Riya Shrivastava and R. M. Mishra

Pages:

115-120

2016

December

Vehicular pollution, Epidermal cell, Stomata, Trichomes, Micro-morphology.
Effect of vehicular emissions on road side plant species Lantana camara, has been studied with special reference to epidermal characteristics of leaves. Lantana camara is a heavily branched shrub that can grow in compact clumps, dense thickets or as a climbing vine. The light microscopic studies of this plant indicated marked alternation in epidermal traits, with increased number of stomata, epidermal cells and trichomes per unit area and decreased length and width of stomata guard cells, epidermal cells and trichomes on both abaxial and adaxial surface of leaf collected from polluted site than those of control ones. These changes in micro-morphological structures could be an indicator of environmental stress caused due to urban air pollution. These characters could be used in the monitoring of urban air quality.

26

Simutaneous saccharification and fermentation of sugar-cane bagasse for bioethanol production.

Monika, Shashi Paroda, Leela Wati and Sheh Goyal

Pages:

121-123

2016

December

Sugarcane bagasse, Ethanol, Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation, Lignocellulosic biomass.
Non milled sugarcane bagasse procured from sugar mill, Meham (Rohtak) contained 31.7% cellulose, 23.7% hemicellulose and 22.8% lignin. After grinding there was negligible change in composition. Treatment with 5% NaOH for 1 hour was found to be best treatment in terms of change in composition of substrate and time of pretreatment. There was 75.9% decrease in lignin content whereas cellulose content was increased to 42.0%. The pretreated biomass was further used for saccharification to obtain maximum reducing sugars by fungal inoculation. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of pretreated substrates was carried out in buffer nutrient medium using enzyme precipitate of Trichoderma reesei and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Maximum ethanol (3.1%) was observed in 5% alkali pretreated milled sugarcane bagasse at 10% substrate loading.

27

Influence of growth regulators and botanicals on physico-chemical and quality parameters in acid lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle).

M. Kumar and J. Kabariel

Pages:

125-126

2016

December

Acid lime, Growth regulators, Botanicals, Fruit length, Fruit girth, Fruit volume, TSS, Ascorbic acid, Acidity.
A field experiment on was conducted at South farm, Vanavarayar Institute of Agriculture, Manakkadavu, Pollachi Tamil Nadu during 2014-2015. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Block Design with nine treatments and three replications. Acid lime (Citrus aurantifolia swingle) is an important commercial species of citrus considered to be indigenous to India, and is extensively cultivated in almost all states of India under tropical and subtropical climatic conditions. In the present investigation, the highest fruit length was noticed in T - 3 Panchakavya @ 5% (6.50 cm) followed by T -IAA @ 50 ppm (5.53 cm), the highest fruit girth was noticed in T - 1 3 Panchakavya @ 5% (6.86 cm) and also the highest fruit volume was recorded in T -Panchakavya @ 5% (51.20 ml) fol- 3 lowed by T -IAA @ 50 ppm (48.85 ml). In this investigation, the highest Juice content (ml/100 g) was noticed in T - 1 3 Panchakavya @ 5% (55.0 ml), the highest ascorbic acid content was recorded in T -Panchakavya @ 5% (35.65 mg/ 3 100 g) and the highest acidity was recorded in T -Vemivash @ 5 ml (7.25%).

28

Use of certain medicinal plants for the treatment of various skin disorders by tribes and nomadic groups residing in the Mej river catchment area, Rajasthan.

Rajendra Prasad

Pages:

127-128

2016

December

Ethnobotany, Mej river, Skin disorders. Plant species, Tribals, Nomadic groups.
An ethanobotanical exploration was carried out during the years 2013 to 2015 among tribals and nomadic groups residing in the Mej river catchment area. The data were collected from the local tribals and nomadic groups including tribal practitioners, Ojhas, traditional healers, Vaidh, Bhopa, etc. A total of fifty two plants species were recorded for treatment of various ailments from the different sites in the Mej river catchment area of which 12 plant species were used as folk medicine for curing skin disorders and related disease.

29

Genetic divergence studies in Indian Kodo Millet (Paspalum scrobiculatum L.).

Abhinav Sao, Preeti Singh, Prafull Kumar and Praveen Panigrahi

Pages:

129-132

2016

December

Kodo millet, Cluster analysis, Euclidian clustering, Variability.
Divergence analysis was conducted in twenty seven diverse advance breeding lines from Small Millets Centre all over India. Cluster analysis grouped twenty seven kodo millet entries into 4 different clusters through Euclidian clustering. The clustering pattern could be utilized in choosing the diverse genotypes which were likely to generate the highest possible variability for various economic characters. Cluster I was the largest comprising of 13 genotypes followed by cluster II with 8 genotypes, cluster IV with 3 genotypes and cluster III with 2 genotypes. Cluster I formed solitary clusters which revealed the presence of wide diversity for various characters among different diverse breeding lines of kodo millet. The existing variability in the kodo millet lines provides opportunities for breeders to select specific donors for genetic improvement.

30

Can nitrogen limitation produce any dietary response in the marine microalga Chlorella marina - A combo diet in green water hatchery.

Rajani S. Ganga and Aneykutty Joseph

Pages:

133-136

2016

December

Chlorella marina, Growth kinetics, Biochemical variations, Nitrogen limitation.
The present study was conducted to assess the influence of nitrogen on culture media on the growth response as well as biochemical composition of the marine microalga, Chlorella marina. Comparative growth and multiplication of Chlorella marina was studied using 5 different nutrient conditions viz. Walnes medium (control/N ), 100 Walnes medium without nitrogen source (N ) and Walnes medium with 25% (N ), 50% (N ) and 75% (N ) nitrogen 0 25 50 75 sources. Cultures were maintained in Haffkine flasks (4 liters) in triplicates. Standard algal culture conditions viz. medium, in sterilized sea water of salinity 33 ppt, standard pH of 8.5, culture room temperature of 24�C and light intensity of 3000 lux (12hr:12hr). Algal cell density was estimated using a haemocytometer on every alternate days. Growth kinetics and biochemical variations of Chlorella marina in each culture condition were analysed following standard methods. One way analysis of data revealed that nitrogen limitation is found to influence cell division rate and biochemical compositions of Chlorella marina significantly (p<0.05).

31

Synergistic effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi with Methylobacterium and the effect on their microbial population, plant nutrient uptake and enzyme activities in the rhizosphere of onion.

M. R. A. Manimala and S. P. Sundaram

Pages:

137-141

2016

December

Microbial interaction, Cooperative effect, Nutrient uptake, Enzyme activity.
The experiment was conducted to study the possibility of enhancing the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi root infection with the combined inoculation of Methylobacterium sp. isolates obtained in the present study. The study was carried out with methylobacterial isolates such as Methylobacterium sp. LE1, Methylobacterium sp. AI1 were combined inoculated with AM fungi to find out mycorrhizal root colonization on onion plant. From the above findings, treatment such as T6 (Methylobacterium sp. AI1+AM fungi) followed by T5 (Methylobacterium sp. LE1+AM fungi) responding better for co inoculation which resulted in a significant interactive effect on spore count and mycorrhizol root colonization compared to untreated plants. In addition, the combined inoculation of (Methylobacterium sp LE1+AM fungi) resulted in superior consortium of microorganism for inoculating onion. The mixed microbial inoculants were promoting the plant growth by producing growth hormone, mineral compounds and humanizing soil conditions. However, overall obviously the combined treatment was better for onion.

32

Effect of different source of sulphur fertilizer on castor performance.

A. H. Kumar Naik, T. Rudramuni and G. Hanumantha Naik

Pages:

143-146

2016

December

Castor, Gypsum, Elemental sulphur, Single SuperPhosphate.
Sulphur (S) is an essential plant nutrient required by all crops for optimum production. Soils those are low in organic matter prone to S deficiency. Researches on crop physiological and agronomical practices have been shown that the dry matter accumulation, S-uptake and chlorophyll content can be increased considerably at different intervals and stages of plant growth with judicious application of sulphur. Field study was planned under this content at Zonal Agricultural and Horticultural Research Station, Hiriyur, Karnataka during three consecutive years (2010- 2011, 2011-2012 and 2012-2013) of Kharif seasons indicated application of 20 kg S/ha through gypsum recorded significantly the highest yield (1751 kg/ha), gross returns (Rs. 58234/ha), net returns (Rs. 43277/ha) and B:C ratio (3.9) over control under rainfed conditions. The large scale demonstration on three farmers' fields in Chitradurga district also revealed that application of 20 kg sulphur/ha through gypsum was effective in realizing higher castor seed yield (7%) with higher profitability (B:C ratio 4.2).

33

A comparative study on Nostoc and Oscillatoria spp. for heavy metal tolerance and biomass production.

Chetna Gupta and Pragya Kulkarni

Pages:

147-150

2016

December

Cyanobacteria, Heavy metal, Tolerance, Toxicity, Growth.
Cyanobacteria are unicellular, photoautotrophic, prokaryotic organisms. Due to their ubiquitous nature, they have to endure all environmental conditions as well as changes. During the growth, they have to experience morphological and physiological adaptations. Heavy metals have been released to the environment over long periods of time by natural process and manmade activities. These metals are directly or indirectly involved in all phases of ecosystem as beneficial in extremely narrow ranges, tolerating or toxic to biotic components. Filamentous cyanobacteria are excellent indicators to study the toxic metabolic levels of heavy metals. They differ in their nutritional requirements and also adaptations to changes in availability of nutrients. In the present study two abundantly growing filamentous cyanobacterial isolates Nostoc and Oscillatoria were selected using Allen's and Arnon's as best growth media. These filamentous cyanobacterial species have ability to grow in mass quantity under growing conditions which provides usable biomass at minimum efforts. These isolates were then examined for their ability to tolerate selected heavy metals (As, Cu, Hg and Pb) under experimental conditions by the dilution method. Both the cyanobacterial isolates showed various degree of tolerance for selected heavy metals. The isolate of Nostoc was found to tolerate the presence of all the selected heavy metals as compared to Oscillatoria.

34

Genetic diversity analysis of Labeo rohita (Hamilton,1822) from hatchery and Nanak Sagar reservoir of Uttarakhand by using microsatellite markers.

Mohd. Danish and I. J. Singh

Pages:

151-156

2016

December

Genetic diversity, Microsatellites, Primers, Labeo rohita.
The present study deals with genetic diversity analysis of Labeo rohita collected from hatchery stock and Nanak Sagar reservoir of Uttarakhand through microsatellite marker. Total 20 microsatellite primers were designed by using software Primer-BLAST and Primer-3. A total of 12 microsatellite loci were successfully amplified. After performing native PAGE using amplified 50 DNA samples each, POP GENE Version 1.32 was used to calculate microsatellite variation. The average expected Nei's genetic diversity ranged from 0.328 to 0.529 with mean value of 0.458 for Labeo rohita across all loci from hatchery whereas the average expected gene diversity ranged from 0.510 to 0.749 with mean value of 0.630 for Labeo rohita across all loci from Nanak Sagar reservoir. The observed and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.2237 to 0.3326 and 0.2786 to 0.3763 respectively for Labeo rohita from hatchery. The mean value of observed heterozygosity was 0.2864 and that of expected heterozygosity was 0.3238. Fis values were found to be positive at all loci in hatchery with mean value of 0.256. The Fis values were found to be negative at all loci in Nanak Sagar with mean value of 0.176. The observed and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.4469 to 0.5459 and 0.4829 to 0.5561 respectively for Labeo rohita from Nanak Sagar with mean value of 0.4894 and 0.5151 for observed and expected heterozygosity. Mean values for Shannon's information index for all microsatellite loci were 1.1091 for hatchery and 1.2062 for Nanak Sagar reservoir population. Slightly more level of observed heterozygosity in Labeo rohita from reservoir than Labeo rohita from hatchery might be due to presence of more differentiated stocks in reservoir. Lesser value of observed heterozygosity in Labeo rohita from hatchery than reservoir might be possibly due increase in incidents of inbreeding in successive generations owing to lack of regular germplasm exchange of appropriate genetic diversity. The microsatellite analysis showed that Labeo rohita of Nanak Sagar reservoir is more genetically diversed and genetically differentiated as compared to Labeo rohita from hatchery.

35

Immunomodulatory effect of Bacopa monnieri (Brahmi) in enhancing stress tolerance in Labeo rohita (Hamilton,1822).

C. P. Ansar, D. Pillai, H. S. Mogalekar, A. Golandaj and D. L. Chauhan

Pages:

157-161

2016

December

Bacopa monnieri, Immunomodulatory effect, Stress tolerance, Labeo rohita.
The immunomodulatory effect of Bacopa monnieri (Brahmi) in enhancing stress tolerance in Labeo rohita (Hamilton,1822) has been investigated. The present study has been designed to examine the specific activity of the antioxidant enzymes, especially Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) after feeding Labeo rohita with Brahmi incorporated feed. The results showed significant variation in the specific activity of antioxidant enzymes before and after the exposure to the stress. In this maximum variation occur in the antioxidant enzymes, Superoxide dismutase activity is seen in the feed having 15% Brahmi and values ranged from 1.323-2.284. This result is near to the result got for 20% and the value varies from 0.974-2.275. The minimum variation occur in the feed contain 5% Brahmi and values varied from 0.552-0.929. In the Glutathione peroxidase maximum variation occurs in the feed contain 15% Brahmi and values ranged from 0.109-0.690. The minimum variation occurs in control feed and values come from 0.039-0.153. Comparison of the specific activities of the antioxidant enzymes before and after stress exposure indicated that incorporation of 15% Brahmi in diet is the optimum level to enhance stress tolerance in L.rohita.

36

Length-weight relationship and condition factor of Rohu (Male) x Catla (female) hybrid in lake Pichhola, Udaipur (Rajasthan).

A. Nakul Bhatt, Nilesh Joshi, Khokhar Sanofar and D. Dipeeka Lakhadhir

Pages:

163-166

2016

December

Length- weight relation, Condition factor, Rohu-catla hybrid, Pichhola lake.
In this paper, length-weight relationship and condition factor (K) for important Rohu-catla hybrid from lake Pichhola are described. Pichhola is freshwater lake, is situated in Udaipur district of Rajasthan. This study aimed to estimate the length-weight relationship and characterize the condition factor of Rohu-catla hybrid the most abundant and economically important species in lake Pichhola. The fish attained more weight per unit of length in early age (2 years) in the lake thus, showing a linear growth. The correlation coefficient was positive and highly significant (r = 0.982** and 0.793**) in length groups A (26-30 cm) and D (41-45 cm). The values of condition factor 'K' varied between 1.343-1.836. The high value of condition factor (K) in group A (1.836) and D (1.626) indicate higher increase in weight in relation to length.

37

Haematological profile of subacute oral toxicity of sodium fluoride and ameliorative effect of vitamin E in male wistar rats.

Renu Singh, A. K. Srivastava, Neeraj Kumar Gangwar and Uttam Singh

Pages:

167-169

2016

December

Hematological, Sodium fluoride, Vitamin E and rats.
High affinity of the fluoride to the bone causes intoxication of bone marrow resulting into alterations in normal hematological profile. In present study sodium fluoride alone and with Vitamin E (ameliorative agent) was administered orally daily for 45th days. For this purpose, a total of 24 rats were randomly divided into four equal groups: group I used as control and groups II, III and IV were orally treated with Sodium fluoride (8 mg/kg body weight), Vitamin E (100 mg/kg body weight) and Sodium fluoride plus Vitamin E, respectively to access the effect on the hematological profile on different days of exposure. Exposure of sodium fluoride alone produced significant reduction in hemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV), total leucocytes count (TLC), and total erythrocyte counts (TEC) and means corpuscular volume (MCV). However, values of mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were not significantly changed. On comparing the observations of ameliorative group with the toxicity group rats, it is concluded that the use of the ameliorative Vitamin E has beneficial effects on the alterations in values of Hb, PCV, TEC, TLC and MCV produced by the subacute exposure of Sodium fluoride in rats.

38

Effect of seaweed extracted fucoidan on enhancement of the immune response of giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

J. Canciyal, P. Jawahar, H. S. Mogalekar and Dibakar Bhakta

Pages:

171-174

2016

December

Fucoidan, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, Immunostimulant, proPhenol Oxidase, NBT activity.
An experiment of 90th days duration was conducted to test the efficacy of the fucoidan derived from brown seaweed Padina tetrastromatica as an immunostimulant in Giant freshwater prawn M.rosenbergii. The prawns were fed with the diets containing different concentration of fucoidan viz., 1%, 2% and 3%. The proPhenol Oxidase (proPO) activity and the NBT activity was found to be elevated in the experimented group fed with fucoidan derived from P.tetrastromatica on 30th and 45th day at 3% concentration respectively. The results of the study reveal that supplementation of dietary fucoidan @ 3% could improve selected immune parameters of M.rosenbergii

39

Seasonal rate of infestation in intestines of Bothriocephalus acheilognathi and their histopathological alternations and distribution in three freshwater fishes of Kashmir.

Asifa Wali, Masood-Ul Hassan Balkhi, Rafia Maqbool, M. M. Darzi and Feroz A. Shah

Pages:

175-182

2016

December

Bothriocephalus acheilognathi, Prevalence, Parasite, Enteritis, Mucopolysaccharide
Parasitological investigation was carried out in the indigenous cyprinid fish, to understand the seasonal variation of infection in a nutrient-enriched water bodies viz. Dal lake and Jhelum river. Three fish species (Schizothorax niger, Schizothorax esocinus, Schizothorax curvifrons) were recovered from two water bodies of Kashmir valley from which Bothriocephalus acheilognathi (30.63%) were detected and identified. Samples of water, fish and parasite were collected during different seasons from various sites and processed. In Dal lake the overall prevalence of parasitic infection was highest during summer (prevalence = 31.4%) and lowest during winter (prevalence = 18.6%). Contrary to this in Jhelum river the prevalence was highest during summer (prevalence = 46.9%) and lowest during winter (prevalence = 17.85%). Sex was not an important factor influencing the prevalence of the Asian tapeworm (B.acheilognathi). Thus seasonal dynamics influenced the tapeworm infection. The above findings will be useful in devising the appropriate control strategies for the B.acheilognathi in fishes of Kashmir valley. The presence of the parasites had reduced the condition coefficient of the infected fishes in both the water bodies. Histopathologically, the parasite induced various intensities of enteritis coupled with hyperplastic goblet cells with increased acid mucopolysaccharide concentrations.

40

Determinants of poverty movements among fisheries households of rural Tripura.

Apu Das, Nalini Ranjan Kumar, Biswajit Debnath, M. Krishnan, Anjani Kumar and V. Ramasubramanian

Pages:

183-188

2016

December

Poverty, Poverty movements, Fisheries households, Tripura.
The study attempted to analyze the households movements into, and out of poverty over last 15 years, and the reasons for such movements among the households directly involved in fisheries related activities in the state of Tripura. The study used binary logistic regression model to identify several factors associated with the poverty movements up and down. The results of the study indicate that business gains, involvement in fisheries, gains from inheritance and government job were factors responsible for significantly increasing the probability of escape from poverty and expenditure on health care, marriage or other customary expenses and lack of inheritance property were the factors responsible for significantly increasing the probability to fall into poverty. The findings of the study suggest that involvement of rural households in fisheries sector, improvements in access to the affordable health care, providing quality education and encouraging the small scale business will decrease the probability to fall into poverty.

41

Attiture of shrimp farmers towards Better Management Practices (BMPS) in Nellore district of Andhra Pradesh.

Yarrakula Mahesh Babu, S. S. Dana, H. K. De, Sanjeev Kumar and Bhanu Prakash

Pages:

189-191

2016

December

Vannamei farming, BMPs, Attitude.
Shrimp industry in India is now mostly dependent on Vannamei. Constant growth of aquaculture production in recent years would contribute to reducing the fishing pressure on natural fish stock. But, due to diseases and poor farm management by the farmers resulted low production at farmers' door. As a result, there is a prevailing need of preventing the diseases. So, Better Management Practices (BMPs) came into the picture. Implementing BMPs is a prerequisite for prevention of outbreak of diseases and to get better yield. Keeping these facts in mind this study was conducted to find out the factors influencing the attitude of shrimp farmers about Better Management Practices. This study was conducted in the predominant shrimp farming district i.e. Nellore district of Andhra Pradesh. A total of 150 shrimp farmers were selected from the district by using simple random sampling technique. The data were collected with the help of structured interview schedule. The study revealed that over one third (36.67%) of the respondents had showed less favourable attitude about Better Management Practices in Vannamei cultivation followed by 35.33% had showed moderately favourable attitude and only 22.33% had showed more favourable attitude. Correlation analysis revealed that, age, education, annual income, annual expenditure, material possession, social participation, mass media participation, cosmopoliteness, extension agency contact, innovative proneness, credit orientation, value orientation, risk orientation and economic motivation were significantly correlated with the attitude. Multiple regression analysis showed that six variables namely occupation, annual income, annual expenditure, social participation, extension agency contact and credit orientation were significantly influenced variation in attitude of farmers and they contributed 59% variation in explaining the variability in the attitude of the shrimp farmers towards the better management practices.

42

Exploration of Chromolaena odorata, Spilanthes paniculata, Tagetes minuta, Scorzonera undulta and Mantisalca duriaeri as insecticides against Callosobruchus chinensis Linn (Coleophera : Bruchidae).

B. S. Chandel and Arti Singh

Pages:

193-196

2016

December

Callosobruchus chinensis, Chromolaena odorata, Spilanthes paniculata.
Screening of plant extracts from wild species of plants for insecticidal properties could lead to the discovery of new agents for pest control. Keeping this in view, the ethanolic extracts of ten asteraceous plant materials viz.; C.odorata, S.paniculata (leaves), C.cinerariaefolium, I.racemosa (roots), M.duriaeri, Reichardia tingitana, Rhaponticum acaule, Tagetes minuta (flowers), Scorzonera undulate and Cichorium intybus (whole plants) were tested against for their biological efficacy against early emerged pulse beetle, C.chinensis L. (Coleoptera : Bruchidae). The results revealed that all of the tested materials had significant mortality against C.chinensis as compared to untreated check. The 100% mortality was obtained before termination of experiment. The total mean percent mortality observed for C.chinensis was C.odorata (73.24) > S.paniculata (63.41) > T.minuta (60.08) > S.undulata (52.30) > M.duriaeri (51.16) > C.cinerariaefolium (50.66) > R.tingitana (37.66) > R.acaule (27.91) > I.racemosa (25.83) > C.intybus (20.44 ), while synthetic insecticide Malathion showed (65.00) and control showed negligible effect, respectively.

43

Study on inequality of income among the shrimp farmers in Andhra Pradesh, an empirical data analysis with Gini index.

Yarrakula Mahesh Babu, S. S. Dana, H. K. De, Sanjeev Kumar and Bhanu Prakash

Pages:

197-199

2016

December

Shrimp farmers, Income, Lorenz curve, Gini index.
Aquaculture is providing considerable amount of animal protein which is very essential for the growing demand of the continual growth of world population. This paper presents estimates of income inequality among the shrimp farmers in two major vannamei producing districts of Andhra Pradesh. Gini index for the income has been calculated separately for the two districts to show the extent of inequality. The estimates showed the high extent of inequality among the shrimp farmers with respect to their income. Results of the study showed that, first 20% of the population from Nellore and Prakasam district had 3.55% and 4.69% of the total income whereas the upper 20% of population had 41.07% and 46.2% of the total income respectively.

44

Avian fauna of Unchehara, Satna district of Madhya Pradesh.

Archana Shukla and Shivesh Pratap Singh

Pages:

201-206

2016

December

Birds, Species, Habitat, Rare, Uncommon
An annual study was undertaken to explore the avian fauna diversity of four different locations of Unchehara tehsil, Satna district of Madhya Pradesh. A total number of 67 species were observed belonging to 14 different orders and 34 different families. Family Sturnidae comprising of Myna and starling is at the top. It was recorder that wetland areas were preferred over agricultural area which in turn was preferred over anthropologically disturbed areas by the birds. Some of the birds like Black Ibis, Quail, francolin, White Neck Stork were rarely seen and hence need to be conserved. The continuous change in the agriculture practices like extensive use of machines, fertilizers, pesticides, new hybrid variety of plants, cutting of trees, hunting of birds are great challenge for the birds to survive. Hence, it is necessary to monitor these areas systematically in rapidly changing environment.

45

Effect of non-steroid hormones HCG and DES on growth and maturation of Indian river prawn, Macrobrachium malcolmsonii (H. Milne Edwards).

Dibakar Bhakta, B. Srikrishnadhas, S. C. Das and J. Canciyal

Pages:

207-210

2016

December

Hormone, Pelleted feed, Growth, Maturation, Macrobrachium malcolmsonii.
The effect of two hormones HCG and DES on the growth and maturation of the Indian river prawn, Macrobrachium malcolmsonii was evaluated. Juveniles of Macrobrachium malcolmsonii (average weight : 15.50�0.40 g for male and 13.90�0.10 g for female) were fed with prepared pelleted feed (25% protein) by incorporating Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG) and Diethylstilbestrol (DES) at 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mg l-1 concentrations respectively. After 105 days the prawn fed with HCG incorporated feed at 1.5 mg l-1 showed maximum growth for both sexes (26.50 g for male and 24.25 g for female) and high percentage of maturity (80% for male and 90% for female). The weight in- crement at 1.5 mg l-1 incorporated HCG pelleted feed was found to be higher (10.70 g for male and 10.25 g for female) compared to DES (10.25 g for male and 10.10 g for female). Feed incorporated with HCG and DES at 1.5 mg l-1 can effectively be used in Macrobrachium malcolmsonii culture for promoting growth and early maturation.

46

Abundance and seasonal variation of Odonates in valley districts of Manipur.

O. Gojendro Singh, R. K. Radhakrishore, Th. Ruhini and R. K. Jeshreena

Pages:

211-215

2016

December

Seasonal variation, Odonata.
Odonates are represented by dragonflies and damselflies. In valley districts of Manipur odonates variety were observed and recorded a total of 36 species of odonates, 25 species under 3 families of Anisoptera and 11 species under Zygoptera during the period of one year from January,2015 to December,2015. Libellulidae was the dominant family with 21 species followed by Aeshnidae with 3 species and Macromiidae with 1 species. Under Zygoptera the family Coenagrionidae was dominant with 10 species followed by Platycnemididae with 1 species. The diversity of odonate species was highest during the month of August and September followed by June-July and no odonate species during the month of January.

47

Biochemical composition of different by-catch fish wastes from Haripura reservoir for their utilization as protein enrichment in artificial diet for Labeo rohita fingerlings.

B. C. Joshi, A. K. Upadhyay and Manjulata Bisht

Pages:

217-219

2016

December

By-catch fish wastes, Haripura reservoir, Biochemical composition, Protein enrichment, Labeo rohita.
The application of commercially available fish meal is the most expensive protein source in diets for fish. In order to reduce the cost of feed locally available by-catch fish wastes is used as protein supplement. The noncommercial, poor quality by catch trash fish like puntius, glassfish and molluscs are selected as protein supplement ingredients in formulating low cost nutritional feed for Labeo rohita. These fish were collected, dried, powdered and analyzed for their proximate composition such as moisture, crude protein, crude fat, crude fibre and nitrogen free extract.

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