Year: 2015, Issue: June

1

Enhancement is seed and oil yield of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L. Czern & Coss) by growing Raj Vijay mustard-2.

V. K. Tiwari

Pages:

01-04

2015

June

Medium maturing, Medium seed, Moderately resistant to white rust.
A mustard variety RVM-2 has been identified on the bases of four years seed and oil yield testing data under AICRP-R&M trials. Developed medium duration variety is suitable as - a sole crop, after bajra and early soybean. Its average four year's seed yield (1674 kg/h) showed 9.41%, superiority over best check Navgold and also exhibited 12.2% and 47.4% superiority over Kranti and Vardan; whereas oil yield (654 kg/h) indicated 8.0%, 12.0% and 44.0% superiority over best check Navgold, Kranti and Vardan respectively. It matures in 129 days under late sown conditions. A dull brown colour seed with 1000 seed weight was found 4.0 (g) which is marginally less than Navgold (4.4 g) and shows superiority over Kranti (3.2 g) and Vardan (3.2 g). Higher seed yield was recorded at 125% fertility level of the recommended dose. The yield superiority was 18.47%, 6.72% and 5.99% on the basis of mean seed yield over varieties namely; Vardan, Navgold and Kranti. Mean oil content 39.2% is slightly more than the best check Navgold (39.0%). Whereas, the mean oil yield 654 (kg/h) was obtained which is higher than Navgold (607 kg/h), Kranti (584 kg/ h) and Vardan (455 kg/h). Thus, this variety has shown moderate resistance to white rust and less infestation to Aphids.

2

Survey and etiology of black spot of pomegranate in Himachal Pradesh.

Renu Thakur, Ved Ram and Deepak Sharma

Pages:

05-08

2015

June

X.axonopodis pv. punicae, Black spot, Pomegranate, Germplasm Screening, Etiology, X.campestris.
Present studies were carried out to find the status of bacterial pathogens in different pomegranate growing areas of Himachal Pradesh. Disease survey of these areas revealed the presence of X.axonopodis pv. punicae on leaves and fruits of pomegranate. This is the first report of this bacteria on fruits in Himachal Pradesh. Bacterium was isolated, then identified on its cultural, morphological and biochemical characters as Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. punicae (Vauterin). None of the cultivars were found resistant to foliar and fruit diseases of pomegranate.

3

Effect of drought stress on some physiological traits of maize (Zea mays L.) grown under rainfed conditions in North Karnataka.

P. Priya, B. N. Aravind Kumar, J. S. Chandranna, V. C. Patil and N. Krishnamurthy

Pages:

09-12

2015

June

Relative water content, Seed priming, Chlorophyll Concentration, Anthesis-silking interval.
Field experiment was conducted to study the effect of cropping systems and different seed priming treatments on phenotypic and physiological performance of sorghum grown as intercrop in maize. In the present investigation, the number of green leaves was higher in intercropped maize (3.01) than the sole maize (0.82). Among the priming treatments, only biopriming (2.47) was found superior to farmers' practice (1.52). With respect to RWC, at 75 DAS, all the priming treatments except hydro-priming of maize were recorded significantly higher RWC as compared to farmers practice. At 90 DAS, all the priming treatments were beneficial in recording higher RWC. In the interaction effect, in sole cropping all the priming treatments except hydropriming recorded significantly higher RWC than the farmers' practice. Similarly the SPAD value was higher in bio-priming (39.33) and combination of all priming methods (39.88) at 90 DAS. In addition to this osmopriming (15.82) recorded significantly higher SPAD value at 105 DAS.

4

Nature and magnitude of heterosis and inbreeding depression for yield, associated yield component and quality traits in basmati rice (Oryza sativa L.).

Anil Kumar and Harpal Singh

Pages:

13-17

2015

June

Basmati rice, Heterosis, Inbreeding depression, Yield, Quality.
Heterosis in basmati rice was studied for eight traits such as number of effective tillers per plant, panicle length (cm), number of grains per panicle, 1000-grain weight (g), grain yield per plant (g), alkali digestion value (%), gel consistency (%) and amylose content (%) in seven crosses among eight basmati/basmati type parental lines through generation mean analysis. The analysis of variance indicated highly significant differences among genotypes and hybrids for all the traits. The magnitude of heterosis varied from cross to cross for all the traits studied and all the crosses exhibited significant inbreeding depression in F generation. High heterotic effects were observed for all the 2 traits studied. Heterobeltiosis for grain yield per plant was mainly due to high heterotic response observed for number of effective tillers per plant, panicle length, number of grains per panicle and 1000-grain weight. The quality traits like alkali digestion value, gel consistency and amylose content were in desirable range for basmati rice.

5

Root characteristics of maize [Zea mays (L.)] associated with moisture stress condition in Northern transitional zone of Karnataka.

P. Priya, B. N. Aravind Kumar, J. S. Chandranna, V. C. Patil and N. Krishnamurthy

Pages:

19-22

2015

June

Seed priming, Drought, Root characteristics, Cropping systems, Maize.
A field experiment was conducted at the Agricultural Research Station, Devihosur, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad. There were 18 treatment combinations consisting of three cropping systems and six seed priming treatments. In the present investigation, root: shoot ratio of maize at 30 DAS (0.37), 60 DAS (0.34) and 90 DAS (0.32) was affected by priming treatments in which only bio-priming found advantageous over farmers' practice. In contrast, priming treatments did not show any impact on root length due to receipt of well distributed rainfall. In maize, the beneficial effect of bio-priming (17.45 g plant-1) and combination of all priming methods (17.65 g plant-1) with respect to root dry weight was to the tune of 12.44% to 13.43% at 60 DAS. At 90 DAS all the priming treatments except hydro-priming resulted in 9.49% to 25.78% improvement in root dry weight. Interaction effect indicated that, at 30 DAS highest root : shoot ratio was recorded in biopriming (0.45) in sole cropping compared to rest of the treatment combinations. Similar holds true for root dry weight in maize at 90 DAS in which biopriming (41.09 g plant-1) in sole cropping was beneficial as compared to rest of the treatment combinations.

6

Role of proteases and nitrate reductase on changes of nitrogenous substances during soibum processing.

S. Giri Singh

Pages:

23-26

2015

June

Bamboo shoots, Lactic acid fermentation, Crude proteins, Amino acids, Proteases, Nitrate, Nitrite.
Soibum mashes of single bamboo species were prepared from succulent shoots of Bambusa nutan (A) and Dendrocalamus latiflorus (B) by natural lactic acid fermentation. During 30th days fermentation at ambient temperature, pH drop was observed to be 5.46 to 3.72 and 5.40 to 3.67 in mashes A and B respectively. When assayed at pH 7.0, 30�C, pH 5.4, 30�C, pH 5.4, 6�C, pH 4.5, 30�C proteolytic activity of fermenting mash was found to be elaborately hiked up on 2nd day in each of the case relative to relevant 0 day activity. But as soon as incubation entered day 5, proteolytic activity in each case decreased below day 0 value. It seemed that 2-2.4 folds gain of free amino acids in 30th days old Soibum mashes was due to such early increase in proteolytic activity of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts. But crude proteins reduced during such processing. These bamboo shoots possessed 38.53-40.63 mg/100g nitrate and 12.18-16.35 mg nitrite. Decrease in the level of nitrate and nitrite was associated with the increase in the level of ammonia. But in linking with the activity of microbial nitrate reductase, there could be feeble amino acids and proteins synthesis. For each of the nitrogenous substances, extents of change in the two mashes were found to be varied.

7

Studies on biochemical composition of dormant spores of Aspergillus niger.

Shagufta Parween, Mohammad Shahid Masroor and Mohammad Salim

Pages:

27-31

2015

June

Biochemical composition, Aspergillus niger, Dormant spores.
Distinct from previously published data of other investigators based on washed spores, analytical data based on dry weight of dormant, unwashed spores of Aspergillus niger van Tieghem, have been presented. The constituent's measured were water content, sugars, organic acids, amino acids, N content and lipids. As percentage of the spore dry weight A.niger spores contain 3.14% and 1.0% of total sugars and organic acids respectively. A.niger spores contain about 4.28% total lipids of which 57.62% is polar and 42.37% is neutral. Most of the nonpolar lipids comprise of the hydrocarbons (46.16%) followed in decreasing order by triglycerides (27.75%), fatty acids (12.21%), sterol esters (7.77%) and free sterol (6.10%). The spore phospholipids comprise of phosphatidylcholine (19.18%), phosphatidylethanolamine (15.51%), phosphatidylserine (22.85%), lysophosphatidylethanolamine (26.93%) and lysophosphatidylserine (15.51%). A.niger spore proteins (10.43%) consist more of leucine and isoleucine. Total -N content consists mostly of protein - N (71.85%).

8

Biodiversity of cyanophyceae in Haranbari dam of Bagalan (Maharashtra).

N. H. Aher and D. S. Jain

Pages:

33-37

2015

June

Biodiversity, Fresh water, Cyanophyceae, Haranbari Dam, Bagalan.
A critical study has been made on the diversity of Cyanophyceae in Haranbari Dam of Bagalan during the period from July,1998 to June,2000. Algal samples were collected at 1st week of monthly interval from three stations of Haranbari dam during the period of two years of investigation. Line drawing of Cyanophyceae, were made by camera lucida. 47 taxa of Cyanophyceae, were identified with the help of standard monograph and recent literature. In present study this class consist of mainly species of Microsystis, Chroococcus, Gloeocapsa, Aphanocapsa, Synechococus, Gomphosphaeri, Hydrococcus, Arthrospira, Spirulina, Oscillatoria, Trichodesmium, Phormidium, Lyngbya, Nostoc, Anabaena, Raphidiopsis, Homoeothrix, Calothrix, Rivularia and Gloeothrichia. The member of Nostocales were found to be dominant as compaire to other forms of Blue Green Algae (BGA). All these forms were observed from three stations of Haranbari dam. In the present study 47 taxa of belonging 20 genera are Cyanophyceae were studied texanomically.

9

Comparative study of decolorization of methyl violet by Aspergillus terrus (MTCC 2578) and Aspergillus niger (MTCC 478).

Shishir Vind Sharma, Gopal Krishna Sahu and Anil Kumar

Pages:

39-43

2015

June

Decolorization, Methyl violet, Aspergillus terrus, Aspergillus niger.
Methyl violet (MV) is a Triphenylmethane dye, which has been extensively used in textile industry, color photography, paper printing and tannery industries. Due to these industrialization, huge amount of dyes are introduced into the natural water resource, these dyes are recalcitrant molecules which are very hazardous for environment and human health. Aspergillus has the ability to decolorize methyl violet and thus it a good species for bioremediation. The aim of this research work was to compare the optimizing potential of Aspergillus niger MTCC 478 and Aspergillus terrus MTCC 2578. The best result of decolorization was obtained with Aspergillus niger MTCC 478, which was found to decolorize 75% of 20 to 100 ?M at pH-2 methyl violet with additional carbon and nitrogen source whereas Aspergillus terrus MTCC 478 was found to decolorize only 64% of methyl violet within the concentration range 20 to 100 ?M at pH 3.0 with additional carbon and nitrogen source. Aspergillus niger was found more efficient than Aspergillus terrus.

10

Study on the degree of resistance in different varieties of "Seedling onion" against onion thrips, Thrips Tabaci L. in Bihar

Manendra Kumar

Pages:

45-46

2015

June

Onion, Seedling, Onion thrips, Thrips tabaci, Infestation, Variety.
Onion (Allium cepa L.) is the most important cultivated vegetable crop of India. The total area under onion cultivation in India is about 2,17,340 acres while Bihar alone covers an area of about 21,110 acres. Two main crops of onion are grown each year viz.; "Set Onion" and "Seedling Onion". Seedling onion is planted during December- January and harvested during April-May in Bihar. Onion is infested by several insect pests, of which onion thrips, Thrips tabaci L. is most destructive. Present investigation was carried out to determine the degree of resistance in different varieties of seedling onion against onion thrips, Thrips tabaci L. in Bihar. On the basis of the result of present investigation, it is evident that Spanish white variety of onion was most resistant (11.25% infestation) where as Poona red variety of onion was most susceptible (38.50% infestation).

11

A review on molecular markers and their applications in fisheries and aquaculture.

Mohd. Danish, R. S. Chauhan, Pooja Kanyal, Akansha Khati and Smita Chauhan

Pages:

47-55

2015

June

Molecular marker, Genetic diversity, Population structure, Microsatellites.
A molecular marker is a site of heterozygosity for some type of silent DNA variation not associated with any measurable phenotypic variation. Such a "DNA locus," when heterozygous, can be used in mapping analysis just as a conventional heterozygous allele pair can be used. Because molecular markers can be easily detected and are so numerous in a genome, when they are mapped by linkage analysis, they fill the voids between genes of known phenotype. Note that, in mapping, the biological significance of the DNA marker is not important in itself; the heterozygous site is merely a convenient reference point that will be useful in finding one's way around the chromosomes. Genetic variation in a species enhances the capability of organism to adapt to changing environment and is necessary for survival of the species. Genetic variation arises between individuals leading to differentiation at the level of population, species and higher order taxonomic groups. The genetic diversity data has varied application in research on evolution, conservation and management of natural resources and genetic improvement programmes etc. Development of molecular genetic markers has powerful ability to detect genetic studies of individuals, populations or species. Molecular markers and their statistical analysis revolutionized the analytical power, necessary to explore the genetic diversity. Various molecular markers, protein or DNA (mt-DNA or nuclear DNA such as microsatellites, Single Nucleotide polyphosphate or Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA) are now being used in fisheries and aquaculture for species identification, genetic variation and population structure study in natural populations, comparison between wild and hatchery, assessment of demographic bottleneck in natural population and designing propagation assisted rehabilitation programmes.

12

Assessment of fecundity and gonadosomatic index of Clarias batrachus.

H. S. Jagtap

Pages:

57-59

2015

June

Fecundity, Clarias batrachus, GSI, Marathwada region.
Present study deals with the assessment of fecundity and gonadosomatic index of Clarias batrachus collected from Marathwada region, during January,2013 to December,2013. The mean value of fecundity was estimated 14574�2002 eggs with a mean total length of 25.6�1.35 cm and mean total body weight of 156�13.03 g. The relationship of fecundity with other parameters such as total length (TL), total weight (TW), ovary length (OL) and ovary weight (OW) were found to be linear and the values of correlation coefficient (r) was 0.28, 0.25, 0.69 and 0.98 respectively. The average relative fecundity was calculated as 94.1�13.24. Highest value of GSI was recorded in the month of August.

13

Studies on changes of gonadal materials of Anabas testudineus on the basis of histology during non breeding season.

Gulam Ziauddin, Samarendra Behera, Sanjeev Kumar, Rinku Gogoi, Olik Jomang and Snigdha Baksi

Pages:

61-64

2015

June

Anabas testudineus, Non breeding season, Histology, Testicular and ovarian cyclicity.
The study was conducted during September to February months in the laboratory to understand the reproductive biology of Anabas testudineus. The gonads of Anabas testudineus were studied morphologically and histologically during non-breeding season. It was found that the genital material (milt and ova) their structure, number and volume etc. are regulated according to the influence of seasonal cycle and hormonal secretion. The non- breeding season of Anabas testudineus was categorized into post spawning phase and preparatory phase on the basis of above gonadal cycle. The testicular and ovarian cyclicity was divided into post spawning phase (September- December) and preparatory phase (January-February).

14

Bendiocarb, A carbamate induces genotoxicity and cytotoxicity in bone marrow of Calotes versicolour.

Anisha and Tumul Singh

Pages:

65-71

2015

June

Carbamate, Bendiocarb, Micronucleus, Mitotic index, Calotes.
In the present work two very sensitive biomarkers micronucleus (MN) and mitotic index (MI) has been used to test the genotoxic and cytotoxic potentials of bendiocarb, a carbamate insecticide in the bone marrow of Calotes versicolor. Adult male garden lizards were acclimatized for one week in the laboratory and then injected intraperitoneally a daily dose of 8 mg/kg body weight (� LD ) of bendiocarb. The bone marrow was used for scoring 50 (MN) and (MI). Significant increase of MN frequency in polychromatic erythrocytes (PCE) was observed after 14th and 21th days (P<0.05) and after 28th days of treatment (P<0.005). No significant change in frequencies of MI was observed in animals treated with bendiocarb for 7th and 14th days. However, MI frequencies decreased significantly after 21th days (P<0.05) and 28th days (P<0.005) in the treated group as compared to control. This study thus, reveals that bendiocarb induces genotoxicity and cytotoxicity in the bone marrow cells of Calotes versicolor and the significant level of induction is time dependent.

15

Study on prevalence of iodine deficiency disorders among rural pregnant women in Uttarakhand.

Vinita Singh and Rita Singh Raghuvanshi

Pages:

73-75

2015

June

Pregnancy, goiter, Urinary iodine excretion, Socio economic status.
The present study was undertaken in the rural areas of Udham Singh Nagar district of Uttaranchal to find out the prevalence of iodine deficiency disorders among pregnant women. For the purpose, a total of 200 pregnant women irrespective of their trimesters of pregnancy were included as subjects from 21 villages or localities. Those subjects were then followed every trimester for the collection of required information till their babies were born. The baseline and data was collected by using a pretested interview schedule and the socio economic status was calculated. The estimation of urinary iodine excretion of the subjects was also done. The clinical signs showed a total of 25.51 subjects had goiter. Iodine deficiency was found in 51.7% women. The mean urinary iodine excretion among deficient and normal pregnant women was 5.55�2.70 ?g/dl and 11.88�1.62 ?g/dl respectively. A significant difference was observed in the urinary iodine status as per socio economic status of subjects.

16

A comparative study on the antioxidant activity of Spirulina and Madhuca bark extract in induced diabetes.

Ranbir Singh Jatav and Umesh Dimri

Pages:

77-82

2015

June

Antioxidant, Hypoglycemic activity, Madhuca bark extract, Spirulina, Induced diabetes.
The present study was conducted for assessment of oxidative stress and antioxidant activities for amelioration of diabetes, were evaluated in vivo, in wistar rats. In vivo, oxidant/antioxidant status revealed that oxidative stress play a pivotal role in pathogenesis of diabetes. SOD and GSH levels, were found significantly low in diabetic rats compared with healthy (negative control) animals. LPO and Catalase were found significantly higher in diabetic rats. Antioxidant potential of Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Spirulina and Madhuca bark extract were evaluated to know the best antioxidants among them. Spirulina exerted the most erudite antioxidant with antidiabetic activity, followed by Madhuca bark extract. Spirulina showed an obvious recovery approximately close to normal status in experimental diabetic rats. The finding of the present study clearly indicated that, Spirulina can be used as an alternative natural antioxidant as well as powerful hypoglycemic agent in diabetes management and might therefore be helpful for treating diabetes and related complications.

17

Field bioefficacy of biopesticides in controlling the Tur plume moth [Exelastis atomosa (Wals)] on pigeon pea.

Sagar Anand Pandey and S. B. Das

Pages:

83-85

2015

June

Exelastis atomosa, Bio-pesticides, Spores, Larval population.
A field experiment was conducted during the kharif season 2012-13 at experimental field of Department of Entomology Live Stock Farm, Adhartal, JNKVV, Jabalpur (M.P.). The experiment was laid out in randomized block design with three replications. The pigeon pea variety JA-4 was sown in the plot size of 5 m X 12.6 m at 60 cm spacing (row to row). The recommended package of practices was followed except plant protection measures. The experi- ment was consisted eight treatments viz., Beauverea bassiana @ 1x1012 spores/ml, Metarrhizium anisopliae @ 1x1012 spores/ml, Paecilomyces fumosoreseus @ 1x1012 spores/ml, Verticillium lecanii @ 1x1012 spores/ml Bacillus thuringiensis var. Kurstaki (PDBC-BT-1) 1.5 lit/ha, Neem soap 10 g/lit and Pongamia soap 10 g/lit along with untreated control. The bio-pesticides were sprayed in the 1st week (5/12/12), 3rd week (16/12/12) and 4th week (26/12/12) of December through knapsack sprayer. The population of Exelastis atomosa Wals was recorded a day before spraying and 3rd, days 7th days and 10th days after spraying. The results indicated that all the biopesticides significantly reduced the larval population as compared to control after each spraying. Among the biopesticides, Beauveria bassiana was found to most effective to reduce the larval populations of tur plum moth. The mean E.atomosa larval population/25 pods was lowest with Beauveria bassiana @ 1x1012 spores/ml at three days (1.19) seven days (1.03) and ten days of spray (0.76) as compared to control i.e., 3.18, 3.29 and 3.66 at 3th days, 7th days and 10th days of spray, respectively. The least ef- fective biopesticide was Paecilomyces fumosoreseus @ 1x1012 spores/ml in controlling the E.atomosa population.

18

Haemonchosis in small ruminants : prevention by selection and breeding.

Kush Shrivastava, Pushpendra Kumar, N. R. Sahoo, Amit Kumar, Mohd. Faheem Khan, Om Prakash, Arvind Prasad, B. H. M. Patel, A. Nasir, Bharat Bhushan and Deepak Sharma

Pages:

87-92

2015

June

Haemnochosis, Sheep and goat, Breeding, Disease resistance.
Parasitic diseases in livestock cause great economic losses every year, sometimes by direct loss of animal lives or by loss of production performance. One direct way of control of gastro-intestinal nematodes is by using anthelmintic drugs either as single or as multiple combination compounds. However, disproportionate use of these compounds has constrains in being expensive and development of anthelmintic resistance in parasites. Therefore, alternative strategies for worm control needs to be developed that could not only reduce worm burden in animals but can also limit pasture contamination and reduce chances of drug resistance. Development of breeds/strains of sheep and goat that are naturally resistant to Haemonchosis appear to be the suitable method for worm control as it lowers the chances of drug resistance and residue and is more sustainable as compared to other methods in the context of rapidly changing climatic conditions.

19

Taxonomic study on Chironomus plumosus (Diptera : Chironomidae) from Aurangabad (M.S.).

A. V. Gunjal, R. J. Chavan and A. M. Gaikwad and B. V. Sonune

Pages:

93-95

2015

June

Chironomus plumosus, Morphology, Biology, Karyotype, Aurangabad.
The present study deals with taxonomic features of Chironomus plumosus collected from Aurangabad district Maharashtra. Morphological and karyological characters confirm the species Chironomus plumosus belonging to subfamily Chironominae of family Chironomidae. Larvae of present specimen show mentum with 12 lateral teeth, mandible with three dark inner teeth and caudolateral tubules at posterior abdominal region. The antennae are retractile. The polytene chromosomes 2n=8, AB, CD, EF and G (thummi cytocomplex). The chromosome AB, CD, are submetacentric; EF are metacentric and chromosome G is telocentric.

20

Histomorphology of MNSC in neuroendocrine system of pre-copulating female Spilostethus pandurus (Scopali) (Heteroptera : Insecta).

Dilip Kumar Keshri

Pages:

97-98

2015

June

Median neurosecretory cell, Neurosecretory product.
The median neurosecretory cells (MNSC) of pre-copulating female Spilostethus pandurus were observed in two groups, each of 4-6 cells and were arranged symmetrically on either side of median fissure. The neurosecretory material of MNSC were stained purple with PF, blue black with CHP and greenish blue with PAVB. The neuro secretory product of MNSC were present in small aggregates or lumps in the perikaryon and in axon hillock in pre-copulating female Spilostethus pandurus, a heteropteran bug of economic importance.

21

First report of Chrysopelea ornata (Shaw,1802) from Dantewada district (C.G.).

H. K. S. Gajendra

Pages:

99-100

2015

June

Chrysopelea ornata, Thakshak nag, King Parikshit, Kirandul, Flying snake.
Dantewada district is one of the southern district of Chhattisgarh. The area of the district is covered, more than 50% with dense, sal (Shorea robusta) dominated forests. The area has tropical humid to sub-humid climate. So far the Chrysopelea ornata snake has not been reported from either the Dantewada district or the Chhattisgarh state. The snake was first sighted on a Ficus tree within the Kirandul city area in Dantewada district. The present study has described the morphology of the presently caught snake.

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