Year: 2015, Issue: December

22

Cyanobacterial diversity of Taptapani hot spring, Odisha.

Tripti Sahu, S. S. Bisht and A. K. Panigrahi

Pages:

101-104

2015

December

Cyanobacteria, Taptapani, Oscillatoriales, Chlorophyll-a.
Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic prokaryotes and are known to exist in extreme conditions including hot springs. They form coloured mats in these springs depending upon the pH and temperature. Taptapani is one of the lesser known hot springs of Odisha. It is a shallow hot spring with the bubbling water contained in an artificially constructed pond. The spring bed remains completely covered with a thick layer of green coloured cyanobacterial mat. Morphometric identification and relative abundance studies reveal a predominance of Osillatoriales followed by Nostocales and Chroococcales. Pure cultures of Phormidium sp., Anabaena sp., Lyngbya sp. and Leptolyngbya sp. were established. No major changes were observed in the carotenoid:chlorophyll-a ratio of the cyanobacterial mat collected in summer and monsoon seasons, which demonstrates the mesophilic nature of the cyanobacterial species.

23

Alleviation of cold stress in wheat seedlings by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens IARI-HHS2-30, an endophytic psychrotolerant K-solubilizing bacterium from NW Indian Himalayas.

Priyanka Verma, Ajar Nath Yadav, Kazy Sufia Khannam, Sanjay Kumar, Anil Kumar Saxena and Archana Suman

Pages:

105-110

2015

December

Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Endophytic, Indian Himalayas, K-solubilization, Psychrotolerant.
Forty one endophytic bacteria were isolated from surface-sterilized roots and culms of wheat var. HS507, growing in NW Indian Himalayas. These bacteria were screened in vitro for multifarious plant growth promoting attributes such as solubilization of phosphorus, potassium, zinc; production of indole acetic acids, hydrogen cyanide, gibberellic acid, siderophore and activities of nitrogen fixation, ACC deaminase and biocontrol against Rhizoctonia solani and Macrophomina phaseolina at low temperature (4�C). One isolate IARI-HHS2-30, showed appreciable level of potassium solubilization was further characterized in vivo at control condition of low temperature. Based on 16S RNA gene sequence analysis, this isolate was identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens assigned accession number KF054757. Analysis of the phylogenetic characterization showed close homology with typical psychrotolerant bacteria Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Bacillus methylotrophicus, Bacillus polyfermenticus, Bacillus siamensis, Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus vallismortis. Endophytic nature and plant growth promoting ability of IARIHHS2- 30 was tested by qualitatively and followed by inoculation onto wheat seedlings in low temperature conditions. At 30th days after inoculation, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens IARI-HHS2-30 to wheat plants resulted in significant increase in root/shoot length, fresh weight and chlorophyll a content. Plant growth promoting features coupled with psychrophilic ability suggest that this endophytic bacterium may be exploited as bio-inoculants for various crops in low temperature and high altitude condition.

24

Management of betelvine diseases and adoption of disease management practices in Chhatarpur district of Madhya Pradesh.

Ashish Kumar Tripathi

Pages:

111-113

2015

December

Betelvine, Sclerotial wilt, Foot rot and leaf spot disease, Trichoderma viride, Fungicide.
Stem rot or basal rot, Foot rot and leaf spot and root rot of Betelvine (Piper betle L.) are most destructive diseases and causes loss from 5-90% in betelvine growing areas of Madhya Pradesh. Sclerotial wilt incidence significantly reduced by soil application by Trichoderma viride @ 2.5 kg/ha (22.8% to 4.8%). The incidence of Phytophthora foot and leaf rot effectively controlled by Copper hydroxide whereas minimum root rot incidence was found with carbendazim treated plots. By the proper application of fungicides, additional yield of Betel leaves 13.9, 9.7, 8.4 and 7.0 q/ha were found with Copper hydroxide 50%, Trichoderma viride, Metalaxyl 8% + Mancozeb 64%, Carbendazim 50%, respectively. The results of on farm trails revealed that soil borne diseases effectively controlled by soil application of Trichoderma viride @ 2.5 kg/ha with oilseed cake, betelvine cuttings treatment with Streptocycline, soil drenching with copper hydroxide 50 WP in the first week of July. General spraying with Dichlowas 76 S L was done in the month August and Mancozeb in the month of October. A study showed that by the technical backstopping of the farmers through trainings and on farm trails the adoption of proper disease management practices increased up to 42.0%.

25

Compatibility of native biocontrol bacteria with bioagents for eco-friendly agriculture.

D. G. Panpatte, H. N. Shelat and Y. K. Jhala

Pages:

115-118

2015

December

Biodegradation, Biocontrol, Strains, Compatible, Mycelial.
Application of mixture of microbial strains performing different function such as biodegradation, biocontrol etc. for eco-friendly sustainable agriculture would more closely mimic the natural situation and might broaden the spectrum of activity and enhance the efficacy and reliability of mankind on microorganisms. In present investigation compatibility of biocontrol bacterial strains viz. Providensia vermicola AAU PR1 (KJ161325), Pseudomonas putida AAU PR2 (KJ161326) and P.fluorescens AAU PR3 (KJ161327) with biocontrol fungi viz. Trichoderma harizianum, T.viride, Paecilomyces lilacinus, Verticilium licanii and biodegrader fungi viz. Chaetomium globosum, Pleurotus ostreatus, Emericella nidulans, A.terreus, A.wentii was evaluated. All the test fungi were found compatible with bacterial biocontrol strains. However presence of bacterial strain restricted the growth of biocontrol fungi viz. T.harizianum, T.viride, P.lilacinus and V.licanii initially but soon after the fungi has overcome the hurdle and get momentum and found to grow luxuriously on agar plate showing compatible nature of both the partners.

26

Studies on production of L-lactic acid from groundnut shells by using Lactobacillus delbrueckii NCIM 2025.

C. Obula Reddy and A. V. N. Swamy

Pages:

119-122

2015

December

Solid state fermentation, Mutation, Lactic acid, UV radiation.
The studies on production of L lactic acid have been carried out in biotechnology laboratory, by solid state fermentation. The experiments on groundnut shells are carried out, as substrate which is the cheapest raw material available in India. The culture Lactobacillus delbrueckii NCIM 2025 was obtained from Natural Culture Collection Centre, NCL Pune. At lower temperatures i.e., 37�C and 40�C the lactic acid production was 17 g/l and 23.0 g/l respectively. Lactic acid was estimated by A. C. Kimberley Taylor method. The ground nut shells were treated prior to conducting the experimental investigation. The mutant cells were tested for its stability on 0.6% Allyl alcohol, which was a selection agent. Mutants were generated by exposing to UV radiations, with different exposure times and stability was tested. The results were encouraging and the lactic acid produced was about 23 g/l at temperature of 42�C. The pH optimum was found to be about 5.2 and inoculum size was found to be 3 ml. The present study refocused on accumulation of lactic acid by using ground nut shells having lingo cellulosic material.

27

Reclamation of effluent of a sugar industry by blue-green alga and by a photobioreactor - an experimental study.

Rajalakshmi Jena, Jhilli Prabha Prusti and A. K. Panigrahi

Pages:

123-134

2015

December

Westiellopsis prolifica, Anabaena cylindrica, Blue green alga, Photobioreactor.
The effluent of the sugar industry was collected from the dumping site and brought to the laboratory and kept for study. Graded series of concentrations of the effluent was prepared. Out of the two blue-green algae tested Westiellopsis prolifica was found to be the best for utilization of the alga as a detoxifier when compared to Anabaena cylindrica. The effluent of the sugar mill at 3.0% dilution level is safe and did not show any toxic effect rather showed better growth by Anabaena. Westiellopsis showed higher tolerance and could resist higher concentrations of the sugar effluent. Westiellopsis and Anabaena both could change the brown colour of the effluent to a higher degree when compared to other BGA. This alga could change the colour of the effluent within 30th days time as evinced from optical density studies. The two tested alga can be used to change the brown colour of the effluent to colourless. The data related to pigments indicated that the algae can be grown in diluted effluent where the growth and increase in pigments was significant when compared to control. The pigment analysis indicated that W.prolifica is a better choice over A.cylindrica. The effluent of the sugar industry can be diluted to 3.0% with water and can be used in the crop fields and green gram can be cultivated instead of rice along with Westiellopsis and Anabaena. The effluent of the sugar industry should properly be treated by specific biological agents like nitrogen fixing BGA or by a bioreactor in presence of BGA or by chemical or physical means, to change the colour of the leached effluent. The experiments with a bioreactor with green and white colour light showed better results when compared to blue and red colour lights. The effluent of the sugar industry can be reclamated in green colour bioreactor in presence of both the BGA tested. This piece of work was designed to reclamate the sugar industry effluent by blue-green algae. But to our surprise except Westiellopsis and Anabaena no other alga could withstand the toxicant and reclamate the effluent in natural conditions and also in a bioreactor and this model can be used to reclamate the sugar industry effluent contaminated environment.

28

Efficacy of drip irrigation against Rhizoctonia bataticola infection in smooth gourd fields of Kota district of Rajasthan.

Rashmi Varma and Vishnu Kumar

Pages:

135-138

2015

December

Conventional, Drip irrigation, Emitters, Rhizoctonia bataticola, Smooth gourd.
A field trial was conducted with local cultivar in experimental plot of Arjunpura area of Kota district of Rajasthan to assess the influence of drip irrigation on smooth gourd crop infected with R.bataticola. Comparative analysis of two different irrigation methods viz. drip irrigation and surface irrigation were also carried out to know the effect on percent yield, water saving, rate of infection, percent size and quality of fruit, energy/fertilizer/pesticide cost and labour cost in smooth gourd crop. The drip lines were spread in the field at a distance of 7.5 ft. from April to June till the arrival of monsoon. Percent yield, percent water saving and percent size and quality of fruits was observed higher in drip irrigation than the surface irrigation whereas percent rate of infection, energy/fertilizer/pesticide cost and labour cost is lower than surface irrigation method. The direct application of water and fungicides/pesticides into root zone through emitters inhibit the growth of fungus caused root rot at a primary stage and increase the yield of disease free smooth gourd crop. Water saving is very high in drip irrigation method than the surface irrigation method. Thus, the present study clearly indicates that drip irrigation method is very effective method for water saving and obtaining disease free high quality yield of smooth gourd especially in arid and semi arid regions of India like Rajasthan where the irrigated water is low and farmers are entirely dependent on conventional methods of irrigation.

29

Development of high seed yielding and tolerance to Alternaria blight genotype of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L. Czern & Coss) under rainfed condition.

Vimlesh Kumar Tiwari

Pages:

139-142

2015

December

IVT-Initial Varietal trial, AVT - Advance Varietal trial.
The innovative research experiment was conducted to develop high seed yielding genotype (JMM 991) with high oil content along with tolerance to Alternaria blight. An average increase in seed yield of 37% was obtained from zone II and V over Varuna in IVT. In advance trial, JMM 991 gave 22 % and 18% increases in seed yield over Kranti and Varuna respectively; whereas, the cumulative average of seed yield of zone II, repeat II and IV zone has showed the reverse trend over Varuna and Kranti, which is an increase of 13% and 6% respectively. Maximum seed yield 9.10 (g/plant) was recorded which is higher than Varuna (8.28 g/plant) and Kranti (6.19 g/plant). Highest oil content (42%) was recorded against checks namely Kranti (38%) and Varuna (37%) respectively. Test weight (1000 seed) indicated that it ranges from 4.43 to 4.90 (g) against Varuna (4.5 to 5.3 g). Interestingly, it showed non-significant differences between developed genotype and Varuna (check) gave 4.58 (g) and check had 4.63 (g) in the all IVT (irrigated and rainfed) trials both trials were conducted at 16 locations. Similar trend was noticed in the oil content (%) in both IVT and AVT trials; where it showed 39 and 38.6 (%) which is at par with Varuna. Most significantly, JMM 991 gave oil yield of 589 (kg/h) over varuna 476 (kg/h) which is 24% increase. Thus, this developed strain gave best performance under irrigated and rain-fed condition over checks. Moderate resistance to Alternaria blight was observed.

30

Studies on Myrothecium roridum, a common leaf spot pathogen.

Smita Dubey

Pages:

143-144

2015

December

Myrothecium roridum, 17 new hosts recorded.
Myrothecium roridum Tode ex Fries, recorded seventeen new host plants, photographs of leaf spot, sporodochia, phialides, conidia and cultures given.

31

Monthly variations in physico-chemical parameters of water of protected wetland, Bakhira lake, Sant Kabir Nagar (Uttar Pradesh), India.

A. K. Pandey and Prakash Chandra

Pages:

145-154

2015

December

Physico-chemical parameters, Protected water body, Bakhira lake, Sant Kabir Nagar, India.
Colour, odour, temperature, pH, salinity, dissolved oxygen (DO) and carbon-di-oxide (DCO ), biologi- 2 cal oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), conductivity, total dissolved solids (TDS), total solids (TS), dissolved solids (DS), suspended solids (SS), fixed solids (FS), volatile solids (VS), chloride, phosphate, sulphate, nitrate, total nitrogen (TN), fluoride as well as oil and grease contents of the protected Bakhira lake water were recorded during March,2013-February,2015. Temperature of lake water ranged between 20.1�0.2-34.8�0.5�C with minimum in January and maximum in June. pH of the lake water varied between 7.23�0.3-9.03�0.2, salinity 0.18-0.20 ppt with maximum value during March and July, dissolved oxygen (DO) fluctuated between 5.02�0.2-6.20�0.4 mg/l and dissolved carbon-di-oxide (DCO ) from 11.2�0.3 to 12.9�0.4 mg/l with low values during winter months. BOD of the 2 lake water ranged between 6.5�2.4-12.4�2.4 mg/l and COD 17.6�4.1-57.7�4.06 mg/l. Conductivity of the water ranged between 212.6�4.6-371�7.2 ?S/cm. TDS of the water ranged between 152.5�3.5-326.3�3.5 mg/l with the high values during June-October, TS 160.0�0.34-312.0�0.34 mg/l with high value in August whereas DS between 144.0�0.34- 266.0� 0.34 mg/l, the high values in June and August. SS in the lake water varied between 4.0�0.34-44.0�0.34 mg/l with the lowest value in May and highest in August, FS 104.0 (December)-252.0 mg/l (August) while VS 40.0 (December)- 72.0 mg/l (January). Chloride content of the water ranged from 8.0�0.01 (May) to 19.0�0.01 mg/l (January), phosphate from <0.003�0.01 to 0.39�0.01 mg/l during the period with high values in May and low in January whereas sulphate from 2.90�0.09-16.2�0.09 mg/l. Nitrate content of the lake water ranged from <1.00�0.06-4.25�0.06 mg/l while total nitrogen between 3.04�0.09-10.08�0.09 mg/l. Fluoride content of the lake water ranged from 0.30�0.05 to 1.54�0.09 mg/l and oil and grease <2.5 (March) to 16.0 mg/ml (August). The present study demonstrates that the various physico-chemical parameters of the lake water are within the optimal range for fish life.

32

Seasonal population dynamics of some earthworm species of Sirohi district of Rajasthan.

Suresh Kumar and G. Tripathi

Pages:

155-160

2015

December

Habitat, Population, Density, Breeding, Agricultural land, Garden land, Waste land.
The impact of different seasons on the population of earthworm species viz. Lampito mauritii, Amynthas morrisi and Dichogaster bolaui were studied in three different habitats (i.e., agricultural, garden and waste lands) of Sirohi district of Rajasthan. Highest population of Dichogaster bolaui was recorded in garden in August, whereas its population was low in waste land. The earthworm Amynthas morrisi was abundant in garden but poor in waste land. Maximum population of Lampito mauritii was in agricultural land and but its minimum population was found in waste land. The highest numbers of all three species (viz., Lampito mauritii, Amynthas morrisi, Dichogaster bolaui) were observed in the rainy season (July-Aug.). The populations of the earthworm species were meager in the months of summer (May) and winter (December-January). Earthworms showed their peak population during July-August and the second population peak was observed in February-March. The results suggested that these earthworm species breed twice in a year indicating two population peaks in different habitats of Sirohi district of Rajasthan.

33

A redescription and report of Eustrongylides tubifex Nitzsch,1819 (Dioctophymoidea : Dioctophymidae) larvae in deep fish Sillago of Central West Coast of India at Goa.

Sushil K. Upadhyay, Deepak Yadav and Ashish Tripathi

Pages:

161-164

2015

December

Eustrongylides tubifex larvae, Dioctophymidae, Sillago sihama, Sillaginidae, Central West Coast of India.
Eustrongylides tubifex Nitzsch,1819 (Dioctophymoidea : Dioctophymidae) larvae was investigated from silver whiting deep sea fish Sillago sihama (Percoidea : Sillaginidae) from the Cacra beach of Central West Coast of India at Goa. The worms were characterized as larvae of E.tubifex by morphological features after Jagerskiold (1909), York & Maplestone (1926) and Yamaguti (1962) by cylindrical and slender body, swollen and almost globular head, oral aperture guarded by three lips each with one pair of papillae, longer oesophagus without posterior bulb and posterior extremity with spike like tail process and validated by morphotaxometric statistical applications with the earlier described specimens by different authors from other vertebrate hosts. This study represents the first report on larvae of E.tubifex Nitzsch,1819 from S.sihama.

34

Gear wise catch composition of fishes in Dhaura reservoir of Uttarakhand, India.

Rajesh, R. N. Ram, R. S. Chauhan and Mohd. Danish

Pages:

165-168

2015

December

Fish species groups, Gear efficiency, Mesh size, Catch composition.
Dhaura reservoir are situated in between 28�53' N latitude and 79�34' E longitude in the state of Uttrakhand. The passive gear has been widely used in reservoir. Groups of fish catch composition landed by artisanal fishermen using one traditional non-mechanized craft and four types of gear: gillnets, drag net, hooks and line and cast net were studied in relation to catch contribution of major gears operated in reservoir to develop gear based management practices to obtain the sustainable yield from large water body. The present study revealed that catch efficiency of the particular gear is reflected according to the abundance and occurrence of targeted fish species, mesh size of the gear, seasons and water levels. Among the groups of fishes like major and minor carps, catfishes and miscellaneous group, the gillnet contributed maximum for the catch of major as well as minor carps followed by drag nets. The contributions from other gears like hooks and line and cast net for catfish catch were insignificant.

35

Histochemical response of the certain tissues of fresh water teleost Channa gachua to toxicity of benzene hexa chloride.

Shampa Jain

Pages:

169-172

2015

December

Channa gachua, PAS test, Mucosa, Carbohydrate, BHC.
BHC was developed as an insecticide by French and British entomologist beginning about 1940. It is quite persistent on the plants, accumulates in the soil and in the animal ecosystem. The present paper deals with the study of carbohydrate content of digestive tract and gills of Channa gachua induced by BHC. PAS test for carbohydrate in BHC intoxicated fishes showed a slight increase in carbohydrate content in mucosa and submucosa of the intestine in initial stage of the low concentration (0.5 ppm). With the increase of concentration and duration of BHC gradual reduction of carbohydrate content was observed in different layers of the intestine and stomach. In gills short duration exposure of BHC showed heavy loss of carbohydrate content. But longer duration intoxication increase of carbohydrate content.

36

Evaluation of growth promoting potential of probiotic biosyn in fingerlings of Indian major carp Labeo rohita.

Iqra Nazir, Priyanka Arya and R. S. Chauhan

Pages:

173-175

2015

December

Specific growth rate, Feed conversion ratio, Condition factor, Probiotic, Biosyn.
The present study was carried out to evaluate growth promoting effect of commercial probiotic Biosyn on the fingerlings of Indian major carp, Labeo rohita. The fingerlings weighing 7.239�0.232 g were distributed randomly into four treatment groups T , T , T and T of 15 fishes each in triplicate. Four Isoproteinous experimental diets 0 1 2 3 were prepared by mixing rice bran, deoiled mustard oil cake, deoiled soybean cake and vitamin-mineral mixture. The probiotic Biosyn was incorporated into diet D @ 0.2%, D @ 0.4% and D @ 0.6%. In control diet D , Biosyn was not in- 1 2 3 0 corporated. T group fishes were fed with D diet, T with D , T with D , T with D @ 5% body weight per day for 90 0 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 days. The water quality parameters were regularly monitored. Fingerlings fed with diet D achieved higher specific 3 growth rate (SGR 0.648%), gross conversion efficiency (GCE 0.299), condition factor (CF 1.91) and better feed conversion ratio (FCR 3.255) as compared to other treatments. The obtained results indicated that T was the best treat- 3 ment which realized significant (P<0.05) increase in parameters related to growth performance. The results indicate that Biosyn has very good growth promoting value and does not have any adverse effect on health of L.rohita in culture system.

37

Optimal birth interval of Manipuri women.

L. Hemochandra

Pages:

177-180

2015

December

Birth interval, Lactation, Religion.
Eligible women 1008 having at least two life births in her life time were selected with the help of cluster sampling at four districts of Manipur to study the factors of birth interval of Manipuri women residing in valley area of Manipur and their interrelations with respect to various factors such as socio-economic, demographic and behavioural attitudes. The collected data were analyzed with the statistical tools like r, t, ANOVA one way and Cox's proportional hazard model. By applying classical tests, age at marriage of wife, death of previous child, sex of previous child, used of contraceptive devices and religion are found significantly different and mothers who are in the age group of 20- 25 years can have longer birth interval. Lactation, death of previous child, Religion (Hindu) and desire number of sons are also significant in the case of stepwise regression analysis.

38

Prospective analysis of congenital malformation among live born neonates of Chhattisgarh.

Chandan Kumar, Meenakshi Mishra, Pankaj Kishor Mishra and P. K. Patra

Pages:

181-183

2015

December

Down syndrome, Polydactyl, Fish, CGH.
A genetic disorder is an illness caused by one or more abnormalities in the genome, especially a condition that is present from birth can be a major cause of prenatal infant death and postnatal physical defects. Present study was conducted to determine the chromosomal abnormality and incidence of congenital malformation. Parents were interviewed with the help of questionnaire. Information gathered included family history behavioral risk factors. Forty five samples were collected with giving informed consent for cytogenetic analysis of congenital malformed infants. Chromosomes were examined after G-banded technique of peripheral lymphocyte culture and abnormality was determined by performing karyotyping. Trisomy 21 was seen in karyotyping of Down syndrome patient. With the recent development in cytogenetics like Fish and CGH detect the micro deletion in chromosome. Affected people typically have no history of the disorder in their family. In gastroschisis the bowel does not function properly but the child rarely has other serious issues.

39

Redescription of genus Arctioblepsis Felder & Felder (Pyralinae : Pyrallidae : Lepidoptera).

Navneet Singh and Rahul Ranjan

Pages:

185-186

2015

December

Lepidoptera, Pyralidae, Pyralinae, Arctioblepsis Felder & Felder, Redescription.
The present manuscript deals with the redescription of genus Arctioblepsis Felder & Felder (Pyralinae: Pyralidae: Lepidoptera) by incorporating the attributes of external male genitalia.

40

Water quality index (WQI) used as a tool for assessment of aqua status of river Ami in Uttar Pradesh.

Devendra Kumar Soni, Runa Oraon, Jagdeesh Meena and Poonam Pandey

Pages:

187-192

2015

December

Water quality index (WQI), Ami river, GIDA, Biochemical oxygen demand, Rapti river.
Water quality index (WQI) a tool used to study the quality of water in terms of index number which represents overall quality of water for any intended use. The present study revealed the WQI values of river Ami ranged from a minimum of 91.54 at Rapti river upstream to a maximum of 312.11 at Ami river after confluence of GIDA drain. The higher values of WQI were found mainly due to the higher values of BOD, Nitrate and low value of DO due to addition of untreated/partially treated wastewater emanating from different industries operating in GIDA area in to river Ami. WQI of river Ami is not good even in the upstream (134.5) but it has been improved (121.41) slightly, before meeting to river Rapti. Natural flow of river Ami may be maintained by regulated extraction of water for different purpose and only treated wastewater discharge from GIDA drain.

41

Infestation dynamics of Eriosoma lanigerum Hausmann - wooly apple aphid (Homoptera : Aphididae) on apple (Malus domestica Borkh) and its relation with important weather factors in Jammu province, India.

Ruchie Gupta, Ravinder Sharma and Sheetal Rani

Pages:

193-196

2015

December

Eriosoma lanigerum hausmann, Wooly apple aphid, Infestation dynamics, Weather factors.
The objective of this study is to determine the Seasonal variation, percent infestation and effect of important weather factors viz. temperature (minimum, maximum, average), relative humidity (morning, afternoon and average) and average rainfall on population of woolly apple aphids, Eriosoma lanigerum Hausmann. Abundance of the pest was calculated on monthly basis in various apple orchards from March,2008 to February,2011, located in Jammu. Studies reveal that the pest remains active in the fields during March to December and suspends their activity during severe winters. It was recorded that there are two population peaks in a year, 1st in June and 2nd in August. Correlation analysis for aphid population densities indicate a highly significant positive correlation with minimum temperature, maximum temperature and average temperature (p<0.01) during all studied years. However, population build up shows an insignificant positive correlation with morning relative humidity, evening relative humidity, average relative humidity and average rainfall.

42

Seasonal variation in micronutrient contents of mulberry (Morus alba) leaves under temperate climatic conditions of Kashmir.

S. Nooruldin, Afifa, S. Kamili, M. R. Mir and R. K. Sharma

Pages:

197-200

2015

December

Mulberry, Micronutrients, Season, Phase, Sampling.
Foliar analysis conducted during 1st phase (prior to pruning on May 1, May 15 and June 1) and 2nd phase (after pruning on August 1, August 15, September 1, September 15 and October 1) on eight sampling dates revealed that zinc and copper contents in leaf decreased with advancement of age, while as iron and manganese accumulated in leaves with maturity. During 2nd phase the concentration of Zn, Fe, Cu was comparatively lesser than that of first phase on corresponding sampling dates, contrary was the case with Mn which recorded higher concentrations during 2nd phase, necessitating the augmentation of the deficit during respective phases.

43

Effect of cryofreezed sperm on spawing response of Cyprinus carpio communis and Cyprinus carpio Haematopterus during normal and late breeding season under Tarai region of Uttarakhand.

Adita Sharma, R. N. Ram, Shiv Prasad and J. K. Prasad

Pages:

201-204

2015

December

Common carp, Amur carp, Normal and Late breeding season.
The present study was conducted for comparison of cryofreezed sperm and corresponding embryonic development, viability and fertilizing capacity in fish Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and its strain Amur carp (Cyprinus carpio haematopterus) during normal and late breeding season under Tarai conditions of Uttarakhand. The present observation reveals that there is difference in embryonic development in both the seasons for different proportion of extender and cryoprotectant solution. In case of Amur carp, the combination of TRIS+DMSO+Glucose showed normal embryonic development where as comparatively better result was observed in RPMI+DMSO and late embryonic development was in PBS+DMSO treatment group in normal breeding season as well as in late breeding season. In case of common carp in normal breeding season, better embryonic development was shown in PBS+DMSO followed by TRIS+DMSO+Glucose and by RPMI+DMSO respectively. In late breeding seasons, TRIS+DMSO+Glucose gave better result while comparison to other groups in common carp. The result also reveals that sperm of Amur carp diluted with RPMI+DMSO have better post thaw motility, fertilization and hatching rate in both normal and late breeding season. Sperm of Common carp diluted with PBS+DMSO showed better result in normal season and TRIS+ DMSO+Glucose showed better result in late breeding season. The comparison between embryonic development of Common carp with Amur carp showed significant difference being better in Amur carp by reference of motility, fertility and hatching percentage in comparison of common carp which might be due to the fact that reproductive capacity of Amur carp is higher than that of common carp. These observations indicate that Amur strain of common carp is suitable for replacing the Common carp in favorable conditions by virtue of its better reproductive potential.

44

The effect of acidifiers on bacterial load.

Anuradha Yadav, Parminder Singh, S. K. Sikka and Bhujendra Soni

Pages:

205-207

2015

December

Feeds, Broilers, Acidifier.
To determine the productive effect of acids over the broiler chicken, four treatments were formed, of 48 chickens each, together with a control. The chicken in the treatments received antibiotic - furazolidone (200 mg/100 kg) and acidifiers used as acidifier 1- mixture of formic acid and lactic acid, acidifier 2- butyric acid acidifier and acidifier 3 - prepared in laboratory by mixing copper sulphate, lactic acid, water in the ratio 1:2:3 respectively in the feed at the rate of 50 mg/100 kg for starter fallowed by 50mg/kg in the finisher. The use of this acidifying at the broiler chicken had profitable results, least total and E.coli count was obtained in the antibiotic supplemented group as compared to the control and acidifier group but no significant difference was present between acidified and the antibiotic group. No Salmonella growth was obtained in any sample. Acidifiers are as good as antibiotic in controlling the population of pathogenic bacteria.

45

Successful induced spawning of climbing perch, Anabas testudineus (Bloch,1792), under controlled conditions at Raipur (Chhattishgarh), India.

C. S. Chaturvedi, Rashmi Ambulkar, R. K. Singh and A. K. Pandey

Pages:

209-214

2015

December

Induced breeding, Larval rearing, Anabas testudineus, Chhattisgarh, India.
An attempt has been made to induce spawning and larval rearing of the climbing perch, A.testudineus, under agro-climatic conditions of Raipur (C.G.). Male and female brooders were identified based on secondary sexual characters - the males being darker in colour with oozing milt by applying slight pressure on belly while females possessed light brown pigmented spot on body with bulging abdomen. Females were given intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of ovatide @ 0.06 ml/100 g body weight while males were administered (i.p.) with the hormonal drug @ 0.04 ml/100 g weight. The injected brood fish sets comprising one female and two males (sex ratio 2:1) were released in cement cistern. Breeding was observed in all the 3 sets of climbing perch but the latency period was prolonged to 18-28 hours. Eggs (released in batches) were very minute and floating on the surface of water. The diameter of fertilized eggs ranged between 0.6-0.7 mm and were bright clear and transparent while unfertilized eggs appeared milky and opaque. The average fertilization rate was 90% under the hatchery conditions indicating successful natural spawning (without stripping). The newly-hatched larvae with yolk sac measured 2.0-2.3 mm on day one, 2.6-2.8 mm on day two and 3.0-3.6 mm on day three (after absorption of yolk sac). Air-breathing organ developed on 11th day and larvae measured 10.6- 11.8 mm. Indoor rearing of the larvae was done on feed such as plankton, egg custard and chopped molluscan meat with water depth of 6-8". From the three sets of brooders, 10,600 hatchlings and ultimately 4,686 fry were produced.

46

Induced spawning in Pangasianodon hypophthalmus and hatching of eggs in three different types of hatching system at Raipur (Chhattishgarh), India.

C. S. Chaturvedi, Rashmi Ambulkar, R. K. Singh and A. K. Pandey

Pages:

215-221

2015

December

Induced spawning, Hatching, Hatching systems, Fingerlings, Raipur, India.
P.hypophthalmus (Sutchi catfish), one of the important riverine catfish, has great potential for freshwater aquaculture. This species, a native of Mekong river of Thailand, is highly fecund, seasonal spawner and breeds once in a year during monsoon season in flooded rivers. Males attain maturity after second years while females at the end of third year. In this species, the females were found to be larger than males. In the present experiment, 15 females and 15 males (15 sets; 1:1 sex ratio) were selected and induced bred by varying doses of pituitary gland extract (PGE) depending upon the physiological status of fishes. Male brooders were also given PGE at the time of second injection to females. Fertilization of eggs varied from 30-80%. After spawning, hatching of eggs (5 sets) was studied in circular hatchery, 5 sets in vertical jar hatchery and 5 sets in Thailand model hatchery. After incubation of fertilized eggs from vertical jar hatchery 17,30,400 hatchlings, in circular hatchery 14,08,000 hatchlings while in Thailand model hatchery, it gives 31,700 only. The hatching percentage were observed 60% in vertical jar hatchery, 50% in circular hatchery and 30% in Thailand model hatchery. After 2nd days, yolk absorption was observed and from the three types of hatcheries - 9,88,740 fry were realised from vertical jar hatchery, 7,40,000 from circular hatchery and 65,550 from Thailand model hatchery. After rearing the fry in nursery ponds for 25-30th days, 5,93,244 fingerlings from Krundh- Liey Fish Farm, 4,22,400 fingerlings from State Fisheries Farm, Raipur and 65,550 from Deepak Mandal Fish Farm (Thailand model hatchery) (total 10,81,144) were obtained paving the way for mass seed production of the commercially important catfish under agro-climatic conditions of Raipur (C.G.).

47

Assessment of water quality index (WQI) of Kulgardhi dam, Satna (M.P.).

Madhulata Singh and Shivesh Pratap Singh

Pages:

223-224

2015

December

Water quality index, Kulgardhi dam.
The present paper deals with the study of physico-chemical parameters and to calculate Water Quality Index of Kulgardhi dam from July,2011 to June,2013. For the calculation of Water Quality Index, nine water quality parameters were taken (pH, TDS, Calcium hardness, Total hardness, Alkalinity, DO, BOD, COD and Nitrate). The result shows that water quality of dam is good and acceptable for human's consumption and fish culture.

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